Neurological disorders - Historical facts, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What are Functional neurological disorders (FNDs)?
A functional neurological disorder (FND) is a medical condition in which patients experience movement disorders, weakness,  blackouts, sensory symptoms and other neurological symptoms.
A patient with functional neurological disorder suffers from a problem with the functioning of the nervous system and how his brain and body send and/or receive signals.

Neurological disorders
What are the signs and symptoms of neurological disorder?

Neurological Disorders: Historical Facts, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Neurological Disorders

Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, ie the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, cranial nerves, autonomic nervous system, musculoskeletal junction, and muscles. 

The most common neurological disorders include epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementia, as well as cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, neurological infections, brain tumors, and neurological disorders caused by malnutrition.

The nervous system can be affected by infectious diseases caused by germs, viruses (ie, HIV, intestinal viruses, West Nile virus, zika virus), fungi and parasites. Neurological symptoms may be caused by the infection or by an immune response.

Historical Facts about Neurological Disorders

The term "Neuroses" was first used in 1772 by a Scottish physician William Cullen.

Dr. Cullen used the term "Neuroses" to express disturbances in the nervous system, which he did not find organically - physically, and then later began to use, to refer to all functional disorders of the nervous system. 

Sigmund Freud, the spiritual father of analytic psychology at the end of the 19th century, claimed that there were clear psychological reasons for the neurotic disorders.
Neurological disorders were first called psychoneurosis and some categories were later identified:
  • Hysterical neurosis
  • Compulsion neurosis
  • Anxiety neurosis
  • Phobic neurosis
These terms were circulated until the 1980s when the term was abandoned and no longer is used as a defined term for mental disorders.

This term is used in psychological fields and psychoanalysis, only to distinguish between neurotic disorders and psychotic disorders and abnormalities.

A new classification of mental disorders emerged, which looked at the neurotic markers of various mental disorders, especially in anxiety disorders, somatic conversion disorder, and in special cases of mood disorders.

Neurological disorders affect hundreds of millions of people around the world.
Every year approximately 6.2 million people die from stroke, and more than 80% of these deaths occur in low- or middle-income countries.

More than 50 million people have epilepsy worldwide. An estimated 47.5 million people with dementia have 7.7 new cases each year - Alzheimer's is one of the most common dementia-related diseases, accounting for 60-70% of cases.
The prevalence of sisterhood is more than 10% worldwide.

Functional Neurological Disorders (FNDs)

Functional neurological disorder is a newer and more comprehensive term that includes what some people call conversion disorders - symptoms of the nervous system that can not be explained by neurological or other medical conditions.
However, the symptoms are real and cause obvious imbalance or functional problems.

Signs and symptoms vary, depending on the type of neurological disorder, and may include certain patterns.

Functional neurological disorders affect your movement or your senses, such as the ability to walk, swallow, or see or hear.

Symptoms may vary in intensity and may come and go or disappear. However, you cannot produce or control your symptoms.

The cause of neurodegenerative disorders is not known. Your condition may be stimulated by neurological disorders or by the body's reaction to stress or psychological or physical trauma, but this is not always the case. 

Functional neurological disorders are related to how the brain performs its functions, as well as damaged brain structures (such as damage caused by stroke, multiple sclerosis, infection or wound).
Early diagnosis and treatment, especially situational awareness may help to heal.

Characteristics of neurological disorders may include:

1. No organic cause.
2. The patient is diagnosed with neurological disorders and understands his mental state properly (unlike mental patients).
3. Despite the great influence of the nerve on the behavior of the injured, but does not suffer from personality disorders

Internal psychological suffering and external traumatic conditions are a source of concern and threaten the internal psychological stability of the person.

In response to this situation, the patient feels the need for protection and activates coping mechanisms when a threat from an external source arises.
These mechanisms include the ability to escape or resist.

The internal threat stems from psychological conflict and contradictions of opposing psychological forces.

There are motives for actions or activities that are forbidden in unconsciousness (as sexual or aggressive motives) and which need to be emptied, in contrast to the presence of conscience and social ethics and forces that attempt to suppress, modify or prevent these prohibited motives from moving to consciousness, so as to reduce the psychological stress caused by it.

Childhood experiences that cause suffering, have not been properly disposed of or treated, and may contribute to the inefficient activation of personal defense mechanisms.

These mechanisms fail to reduce the degree of anxiety and thus cause signs or phenomena to appear.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Neurological Disorder?

functional neurological disorder
Functional neurological disorders -Symptoms and treatment 

Symptoms of Neurological Disorders

The reflex is similar to the natural reaction, which results from the neurological state of stress or strain, such as anxiety, distress, negative thoughts, and physical irritation.
However, the reaction of the person with neurotic disorders may be unexpected and may pose threats that are disproportionate to the level or intensity verb.
Some special types of symptoms may include:

Anxiety neurosis: Anxiety and distress are among the most common.
The person may feel a great deal of fear, causing the patient discomfort, great stress, and excessive anxiety.
Seizures may occur with physical signs such as dizziness, dry throat, and the feeling of suffocation, rapid heartbeat, rapid pulse, and some serious anxiety.

Depressive neurosis: A persistent feeling of depression or nervousness.

Compulsive neurosis: characterized by the influx of obsessive thoughts that cause anxiety, and ritual behaviors developed by the patient to soothe his anxiety.

Hysteric neurosis: Today is called somatization, characterized by the emergence of physical signs without a clear medical explanation, which appears in the occurrence of physical stress and psychological illness.

Traumatic neurosis: also called phobic neurosis, described in the past as a neurologist.
And describes the incidence of mental stress is very large, and the decline in activity because of the exposure to a traumatic event is dangerous to life.

Causes and risk factors of neurological disorders

Biological factors: This phenomenon may be inherited tendencies, which cause irregular reactions in different places in the brain.
These reactions are responsible for the appearance of signs that characterize the accompanying signs that appear when passing through anxiety conditions.

Psychological factors: The prevailing and basic hypothesis here that the neurosis appears as a reaction to the failure of the internal psychological system, in coping with the anxiety stemming from great psychological suffering or may result from the failure of the internal psychological system to cope with external and surrounding traumatic conditions.

Ambient factors: Discordant disorders may show a mix of the impact of traumatic experiences in childhood with contemporary lifestyle, characterized by stress and a lack of confidence in personal, social and economic factors.

When to visit a doctor
Seek medical care for the signs and symptoms listed above.
If the underlying cause is neurological or other medical condition, rapid diagnosis and treatment may be important.
If the diagnosis is a functional neurological disorder, treatment may improve symptoms and help prevent future problems.

You can begin to visit your primary care physician who may refer you to a neurologist.
You may want to bring a family member or friend with you if possible to help you remember the information provided to you and for support.

Diagnosis of Neurological Disorders

There are no specific tests for neurotic disorders or functional neurological disorders.
The diagnosis usually involves evaluating the current symptoms and excluding any neurological or medical condition that can cause the symptoms.

Functional neurological disorders are diagnosed based on the current situation such as certain patterns of signs and symptoms, and not only on what is hidden, such as the scarcity of structural changes in MRI or the abnormalities that appear in brain electrical layout.

The test and diagnosis usually involves a neurosurgeon but may include a mental health professional or other psychiatric specialists.

Your doctor may use any of these terms: neurotic disorders, functional neurological disorders (FNDs) or conversion disorder.

One of the advantages of the term "functional neurological disorders" is that it can be used to determine the type of symptoms of neurological disorders experienced.
For example, if your symptoms include problems with walking, your doctor may refer you to a walking disorder or functional impairment.

The evaluation and assessment may include the following:
Physical examination: The doctor examines you and asks you detailed questions about your health, signs, and symptoms.
Some tests can exclude medical disorders or neurological diseases depending on the cause of your symptoms.
These choices depend on the signs and symptoms you experience.

Psychological assessment: If appropriate, a neurologist may refer you to a mental health professional.
The doctor will ask you some questions about your thoughts, feelings, and behavior, and will discuss your symptoms with you, using the information collected, with your permission, by family members or others.

Diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 manual: Your doctor or mental health professional may use the criteria in DSM-5 published by the American Psychiatric Association to compare your symptoms

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) illustrates these criteria for conversion disorder (functional neurological disorder): One or more of the symptoms that affect the movement of the body or your senses.

Symptoms cannot be explained by a neurological condition, other medical condition, or other mental health disorder.

Symptoms cause obvious imbalance or problems at the social, working or other levels, or are sufficiently clear where it is best to undergo a medical evaluation.

How to Treat Neurological Disorders 

Neurological disorders
Functional neurological disorders -Symptoms and treatment 

Treatment of Neurological Disorders

Treatment of neurological disorders is a combination of different therapeutic methods.
As the treatment addresses most of the factors responsible for the emergence and symptoms of neurosurgery, it is recommended to treat this phenomenon using antidepressants, behavioral psycho-analytic, pacification, etc.

Treatment will depend on the type of neurodegenerative syndrome and specific signs and symptoms.
For some people, the multidisciplinary approach of a neurologist, psychiatrist, another mental health specialist, speech therapist, physical and occupational therapist, or another specialist may be appropriate.

For some people, education, and reassurance that they do not have a serious medical problem is the most effective treatment. For others, additional treatments may be helpful.

Engaging your loved ones may be helpful so they can understand your situation and can support.

Your medical team provides treatment for any neurological or medical illness you may have and can be a trigger for your symptoms.
Depending on your needs, treatments may include:

Physical therapy: Working with a natural or professional therapist may improve symptoms of movement and protect against complications.
For example, regular movement of arms or legs may prevent muscle tension and weakness if you are paralyzed or unable to move.
A gradual increase in exercise may improve your ability to work.

Speech therapy: If your symptoms include speech or swallowing problems, you may be able to work with a speech therapist (language and speech therapist).

Stress management: Methods of elimination of stress or distraction. 
Stress management techniques may include methods such as gradual muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, physical activity, and exercise.
While distractions may include music, talking to someone else, or deliberately changing the way you walk or move.

Mental health options
Although functional neurodegenerative symptoms are not "all in the head," the emotions and the way you think about things may have an effect on your symptoms and recovery.
Psychotherapy options may include:

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is one of the types of psychotherapy, helps you to understand negative or inaccurate thinking so that you can view situations more clearly and respond more effectively.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) can help you learn how to manage your symptoms and life situations that make better stress. This may be especially helpful if your symptoms include seizures.
Other types of psychotherapy may be helpful if you have personal problems or a history of trauma or abuse.

Treatment of other mental health conditions: Anxiety, depression or other mental health disorders can exacerbate symptoms of functional neurodegenerative disorders.
Treatment of mental health conditions with functional neurological disorders can help in recovery.

hypnosis: When performed by a trained professional who is aware of functional neurodegenerative disorders, individuals who accept suggestions during hypnosis may benefit if they have symptoms of functional neuropathy, which includes, for example, loss of sensation or problems with speech.

Drugs are not effective in treating functional neurological disorders and the Food and Drug Administration does not rely on any type of medication as a specific treatment.
However, medications such as antidepressants can also benefit from depression, other mood disorders, or pain or insomnia.

Learn more about functional neurological disorders
This can help you understand what functional neurological disorders are, and what are the real symptoms and possible improvement in therapeutic options and recovery.
Symptoms may improve after clarification of the condition and reassurance of the doctor that the symptoms occur as a result of a medical problem or neurological latent.

Regular follow-up 
Regular follow-up with your medical team is important for monitoring your recovery and making changes to your treatment plan as needed.

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The Scientific World is a Scientific and Technical Information Network that provides readers with informative & educational blogs and articles. Site Admin: Mahtab Alam Quddusi - Blogger, writer and digital publisher.

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