Warning Signs and Types of Mental illness -Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological disorder

Types of mental illness
Diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorder

Warning Signs and Types of Mental illness - Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological disorder


There are many causes of psychiatric disorder or mental illness, such as emotional and psychological trauma, death, separation, wars, disasters, emotional disappointments, job loss, chronic organic diseases that cause amputation of certain organs. In this article, we will let you know the signs of the psychological disorder, types of mental illness, diagnosis of psychiatric disorder and methods of treatment and more.

Signs and symptoms of psychological disorder

  There are many signs that indicate the existence of psychological disorder or psychiatric illness including the following:

Physical symptoms: These symptoms are a lot of things that did not exist primarily in the physical behavior of the person, such as persistent headache, chronic insomnia, uncomfortable restless sleep, and constant disturbing vision of dreams, because the inner mind is affected by the sick psychic, the loss of body weight, the blackness of the skin, the withering of the eyes, and the feeling of sporadic pain in the body without an organic cause.

Emotional symptoms: The most important of these symptoms is the constant feeling of sadness and fear for no apparent reason, fear of the future and people and things, constant anxiety, feeling of great tension, lack of desire to laugh and talk, and the tendency to silence and isolation, and the constant desire to cry without reason, The appearance of hatred of people, and the desire to harm them.

Cognitive symptoms: Such as the loss of the ability to think logically, the inability to concentrate mentally, and the continuous forgetfulness, with several disorders of memory, and remember strange things, accompanied by some abnormal ideas, and analysis of the illogical things, and often are aggressive ideas, and promote the sense of internal injustice and by others, Remorse and self-blame.

Behavioral symptoms: Behavioral symptoms are the failure to do things that were part of the daily routine, violent behavior with things and people, and the desire to use drugs or alcohol or drugs containing painkillers, and traffic cases of intense anger and emotion.

Psychosis symptoms: This is the most serious psychological symptom at all, where the person imagines the occurrence of things that never happened, and claims to hear different sounds and strange, and see things not seen by anyone else, and accuse others of their reactions and actions never happened.

Read more: Psychological disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Complications, and methods of Prevention 

Diagnosis of psychological disorder

In order to identify the diagnosis and to examine the related complications, you can do:

Physical examination: The doctor will try to reduce physical problems that may cause symptoms.
Laboratory tests. These may include, for example, examination of thyroid function or alcohol and drug testing.
Psychological assessment: Talk to your doctor or health care provider about symptoms, thoughts, feelings, and behavior patterns. You may be asked to fill out a questionnaire to help answer these questions.

Determine the types of mental illness you are experiencing

Sometimes it is difficult to determine the type of mental illness that causes the symptoms. However, the allocation of time and effort to obtain the appropriate diagnosis will help determine the appropriate medication. The specific symptoms of each mental illness are explained in detail in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), that was published by the American Psychiatric Association. Psychiatrists and mental health providers use this manual to diagnose mental illness and psychiatric cases and are used by insurance companies to pay for treatment.

Types of mental illness

The major types of psychological disorder and the main mental illness categories are:

Neurodevelopmental disorder: This type covers a wide range of problems that usually begin in early adulthood or childhood. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and learning disorders.

Schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders: Mental disorders cause separation from reality, such as delusions, hallucinations, speech and unorganized thinking. One of the most well-known examples is schizophrenia, although other classes of disorders can sometimes be separated from reality.

Bipolar disorders and associated disorders: This category of disorders involves alternating episodes of mania and frustration, where mania is defined as successive periods of activity, energy, and excitement.

Depression disorders: This includes disorders that affect your emotional feelings, such as the level of sadness and happiness, that can impair your functional abilities. Examples include depressive disorders and pre-menstrual disturbance.

Anxiety disorders: Anxiety is a sense of anticipation of future danger and misfortune, accompanied by deep concern. Behavior can be desired to avoid situations that cause anxiety. This category includes generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and phobias.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder and associated disorders: These disorders include frequent concerns, thoughts, and actions. Examples include Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Disability Disorder, and Trichotillomania (hair-pulling disorder).

Stress-related disorders: These are stress disorders in which a person has a problem coping during or after stressful life events. Examples include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and acute stress disorder.

Schizophrenic disorders: There are some disorders that suffer from an imbalance in the senses, such as schizophrenic disorders and memory loss.

Psychosomatic disorders: A person with these disorders may suffer from physical symptoms without apparent medical cause, but these disorders are associated with severe distress and imbalance. Disorders include somatic disorder (formerly known as delusion) and Substance-induced mental disorder.

Eating disorders: These include food-related disorders, such as Binge Eating Disorder, Rumination Disorder,  Bulimia Nervosa, Anorexia Nervosa, and food cravings.

Elimination disorders: These disorders are related to urination or defecation by mistake or intentionally. Such as urination in bed (incontinence).

Sleeping disorders: Severe sleep disorder may require clinical care, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, and leg restlessness syndrome.

Erectile Dysfunction (ED): This includes sexual response disorders, such as premature ejaculation and sexual peak disturbance in women.

Emotional Disturbance: This is due to the defect associated with a person's desire to convert to another gender.

Self - control and behavioral disorders: These disorders include emotional and behavioral problems in self-control, such as dizziness or interruptions.

Substance abuse and related disorders: These symptoms include problems associated with excessive alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and drugs. This category also includes gambling disorder.

Cognitive disorders (CDs). Cognitive disorders affect your ability to think and rationalize. These acquired cognitive problems (as well as developmental) include delirium and cognitive neurodegenerative disorders resulting from conditions or diseases such as traumatic brain injury or Alzheimer's disease.

Personality disorders:  Personality disorders include a permanent pattern of emotional instability and unhealthy behavior that causes problems in your life and relationships. Examples include marginal personality disorder, introverted personality disorder, and narcissistic personality disorder.

Sexual preference disorders (Paraphilia)These disorders include libido, which causes personal problems, disruptions or causes potential or actual harm to another person. Examples include Sexual sadism disorder, dislocations, transvestic fetishism, other types of fetishism, pedophilia, frotteurism, voyeurism, exhibitionism, and sexual masochism.

Other mental health disorders:  This category includes mental disorders resulting from other medical conditions or that do not correspond to one of the above disorders.


Treatment of Psychological disorder
Diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorder

Treatment of the Psychological disorder


Your treatment depends on the type of mental illness you are experiencing and how strong it is and what is best for you. The combination of treatments works well in many cases.
If you suffer from a minor mental illness with controllable symptoms, treatment from a single healthcare provider may be sufficient. However, the team approach is always appropriate to ensure your psychological, medical and social needs are met. This is very important for severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia.
Your treatment team may include:

  • Primary care physician or family doctor
  • Practitioner nurses
  • Medical Assistants
  • A psychiatrist, a doctor who diagnoses and treats psychiatric illnesses
  • Psychologist, such as an accredited consultant
  • Pharmacist
  • Social worker
  • Family members

Medication

Although psychiatric medications do not treat mental illness completely, they may improve symptoms significantly. Psychotropic drugs may help make other medications more effective, such as psychotherapy. The medicines that are best for you will depend on a particular situation and how your body responds to the treatment.
Some of the most commonly used medications may include psychiatric drug labels that are described:

Antidepressants: Antidepressants are used to treat depression, anxiety and sometimes other conditions. This may help to improve symptoms such as sadness, despair, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating and loss of interest in activities. Antidepressants do not cause addiction and do not rely on it.

Anti-Anxiety Medications: These drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder. It may also help reduce agitation and insomnia. Long-term anti-anxiety medications are usually antidepressants that also benefit anxiety treatment. Quick-acting anti-anxiety drugs help relieve pain in the short term and also have the ability to cause dependence, so it is best to be used in the short term.

Mood Stabilizing Medication: Mood stabilizers are commonly used to treat bipolar disorders, which include alternating episodes of mania and depression. Mood stabilizers are sometimes used with antidepressants to treat depression.

Antipsychotics: Antipsychotics are commonly used to treat mental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Antipsychotics may also be used to treat bipolar disorders or to be used with antidepressants to treat depression.

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy, which is called dialogue therapy, involves talking about your condition and related problems with a mental health care provider. During psychotherapy, you recognize your illness, moods, feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Using the insights and knowledge you gain, you can learn about coping and stress management skills.

There are many types of psychotherapy, each with its own method of improving mental health. Psychotherapy may be completed successfully within a few months but some cases may need long-term treatment. Treatment may be individual or with a group or with family members.
When choosing a specialist, you should feel comfortable and confident that he is able to listen to what you are saying. It is also important that the specialist understands the journey of your life that helped shape your personality and how you live in the world.

Brain Stimulation Therapy

Brain stimulation therapies are sometimes used for depression and other mental health disorders. They are generally used in cases that do not respond to medication and psychotherapy. These include electroshock therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and experimental therapies called deep brain stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS).
Please be sure to understand all the risks and benefits of the recommended treatment.

Internal treatment programs in the hospital

Sometimes the mental illness becomes so severe that you need to be cared for in a psychiatric hospital. This is recommended if you do not take care of yourself properly or when you are at risk of harming yourself or someone else.
Options include hospital stay, 24-hour care, partial or daily hospitalization, or internal treatment that provides temporary support. Another option may be an intensive treatment for non-residents of the hospital.

Treatment of drug abuse

Drug abuse usually occurs with psychiatric illness. It usually runs counter to treatment and increases mental illness worse. If you cannot stop taking drugs or alcohol by your will, you need treatment. Talk to your doctor about treatment options.

Patient Involvement in Health Care Decision Making

Working with your healthcare provider can determine the treatment that is best for you, based on your symptoms, severity, personal preferences, side effects of drugs and other factors. In some cases, psychotherapy may be so severe that your doctor or loved one may need guidance to recover enough to participate in decision-making.

Lifestyle and home remedies

In most cases, mental illness does not improve the patient's attempt to treat himself without specialist care. But it can implement some of the things that depend on the treatment plan that is as follows:

Commit to your treatment plan: Do not miss therapy sessions. Even if you feel better, do not neglect taking medications. If stopped, symptoms may recur. The patient may experience symptoms such as withdrawal symptoms if he stops taking medications too suddenly. If the patient has adverse drug side effects or problems with treatment, talk to your doctor before making changes.

Alcohol and drug abuse should be avoided: Drinking alcohol or drugs to improve morale can make treatment of mental illness difficult. If the patient is addicted, addiction can be a real challenge. If you cannot take it yourself, see your doctor or find a support group to help you.

Stay active: Exercise can help control symptoms of depression, stress, and anxiety. Physical activity can also resist the effects of some psychotropic drugs that can cause weight gain. Think about walking, swimming or gardening, or doing other physical activities that you can enjoy. Light physical activities can also make a difference.

Important decisions may not be taken when the symptoms are severe: Decisions should be avoided when they are overwhelmed by the symptoms of mental illness as this prevents intellectual thinking.

Setting priorities:  The impact of mental illness can be reduced by managing time and energy. Commitments should be reduced when necessary and reasonable targets established. The patient should allow himself to exert the least amount of effort when the symptoms worsen. You may find it useful to set up a daily task list, use sticky notes to organize your time and keep your curricula organized.

The patient should learn to adopt positive attitudes: Focusing on positive things in life can make life better and can also improve your health. You should try to accept changes when they occur and make problems in your thinking. Stress management techniques, including relaxation techniques, can also be helpful.


Adaptation and support

Dealing with mental illness is difficult. Talk to your doctor or therapist about improving your problem-solving skills and consider these tips:

Learn about your mental illness:  Your doctor or therapist can provide you with information or recommend some classes of exercise, books, or websites. Include your family too - this can help people who care about you understand what they're going through and find out how they can help.

Join a support group: Communicating with others who face similar challenges may help you co-exist. Support groups for mental illness are available in many communities and on the Internet. One good place to start is the National Alliance On Mental Illness (NAMI) in America.

Stay in touch with friends and family: Try to participate in social activities and stay with family and friends on a regular basis. Ask for help when you need it, and be honest with your loved ones about what you do.

Keep a note:  Tracking your personal life can help you and your mental health care provider determine what motivates or improves your symptoms. It is also a healthy way to explore and express pain, anger, fear and other emotions.

Prepare for your appointment: Whether you have an appointment with your primary care provider to talk about mental health concerns or have been referred to a mental health provider, such as a psychiatrist or psychologist, take steps to prepare for your appointment. You can bring a member of your family or friends, if possible. A person who has been familiar with you for a long time may be able to share important information with your healthcare provider, after obtaining your permission.

What you can do? 

Before going to your appointment, make a list of:

Did you or someone close to you notice any symptoms, and how long?
Key personal information, including painful events, and major misdeeds in the past or present
Your medical information, including other mental or physical health conditions
Any medications, vitamins, herbal products or other supplements you are taking, with dosages mentioned.
Questions to ask your doctor or mental health care

Questions to ask include:
  1. What type of mental illness may I suffer from?
  2. Why cannot I overcome the psychological illness myself?
  3. How do I treat the same type of mental illness I suffer from?
  4. Is dialogue therapy effective?
  5. Are there medicines that may help?
  6. How long will it take?
  7. What can I do to help myself?
  8. Do you have any brochures or other printed materials I can get?
  9. What websites do you recommend?
Feel free to ask any other questions.

What to expect from your doctor

During your appointment, your doctor or mental health care provider will likely ask you many questions about your mood, thoughts, and behavior, such as:
  1. When did you first notice the symptoms?
  2. How do your symptoms affect your daily life?
  3. What medications do you take, if any, have you ever taken medications to treat mental illness?
  4. What have you tried alone to feel better or control your symptoms?
  5. What things make you feel worse?
  6. Have families or friends commented on your mood or behavior?
  7. Do you have any relatives suffering from mental illness?
  8. What would you like to get back from this treatment?
  9. What medications or herbs and supplements do you take over the counter?
  10. Do you take alcohol or use recreational drugs?

Conclusion
Life is full of stress, pain and grief, and many challenges that exhaust the feelings, and exhaust energy and emotions, making the psyche more fragile and affected by events, and increases the sensitivity of the person to the attitudes and vulnerability to psychological crises, which may develop to chronic mental illness if not treated and avoided the development of symptoms. These fluctuations may be quite normal to some degree, but if they are not, they have many effects that affect not only the person himself but also affect the surroundings and his social, practical and academic life.
We must pay careful attention to all the vicissitudes we are going through, try to correct their negative effects, and not allow all negative emotions to destroy our psyche and our lives so that we do not become susceptible to psychological illness.

By: Mahtab Alam Quddusi


Warning Signs and Types of Mental illness -Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological disorder Warning Signs and Types of Mental illness -Diagnosis and Treatment of Psychological disorder Reviewed by The Scientific World on February 16, 2019 Rating: 5

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