Sunday, February 17, 2019

Mental Health Assessments and Evaluations for Diagnosing Psychological Disorders

psychological disorders
Mental health assessments to diagnose psychological disorders


Mental Health Assessments and Evaluations for Diagnosing Psychological Disorders

Psychologists, first of all, decide how we can define psychological disorder exactly?  How can we determine whether there is something psychologically unhealthy and unreasonable? How can we decide what is normal and what is unusual and abnormal?

Introduction
The psychological condition is a syndrome in which the person suffers disorders that manifest as psychological impairment in the person's feelings, emotions, cognitive abilities, and behaviors, which affect the patient's social, practical, and educational life.

There are many mental illnesses that a person may suffer, the most common of which are: anxiety disorders, mood disorders including depression, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, mental disorders associated with stress or trauma, Children may also suffer such as attention deficit and hyperactivity.

A few years ago, the community looked at mental illnesses in a negative way, which sometimes led to the patient being confined to an isolated room for fear of stigma. However, with the development of awareness, the community's perception of the psychiatric patient changed, especially after the treatment of most mental illnesses reached a high cure rate of 90 percent.  If the disease is detected early, and if the patient has kept the doctor's appointments properly, it has been seen that it does not affect human mentality more.

The psychiatric patient generally deals with his illness or his treatment due to his negative beliefs about the psychological illness in which a segment of his society participates. There is no doubt that the stigma associated with mental illness, which is due in general to the weakness of the psychological culture has left the door open to misconceptions about the disease requires to go to the non-psychiatrist for treatment.

Psychological disorder and diagnosis

The diagnosis of the mental state begins by taking the patient's main information, such as his name, gender, age, social status, work, and place of residence. This information is important for the patient to know, to record his / her information and to link his / her illness with his or her personal data.

The question is about the condition of the patient with the whole details because if the main problem of the patient is insomnia, insomnia is different from the psychological condition in each case. For example, does the patient mean that he slept at 10 pm and slept at 12, or that he woke up at five o’ clock in the morning and has been woken at three O’ clock in the morning, all this information has implications, the first case is called initial insomnia and indicates that the patient suffers from anxiety, the second case is called terminal insomnia, in this case, patients suffer from depression.

The patient is then asked about his or her use of any narcotic substances, or if he is diagnosed with medication, whether he is taking psychotropic drugs or not; because most of the relapses that occur to psychiatric patients are due to the patients' sudden discontinuation of their prescribed medication. The question is whether you thought of suicide or thought of killing anyone, or if you recently said that you are hungry, how you see your activity and energy, in addition to any change in the number of hours you sleep, whether it's an increase or a decrease. The condition he suffers from in his working life is feeling comfortable with people.

It is necessary to ask the patient about the factors that have occurred in his life, and may have led to the symptoms of psychological suffering, such as exposure to shock, or addiction to a particular material, also must be asked about the patient's social life, as a source of income, It is also necessary to ask about the patient's beliefs, whether or not he has experienced a similar condition, or if a person has experienced any psychiatric illness or attempted suicide, if there is any history of psychological illness in the family; , Because it can give a signal to the doctor about the possible medicine  to be used. In the case of the patient, the possibility of patient response may increase.

Clinical assessment of psychological disorders

Examine the behavior of the patient

The appearance of the patient is assessed in terms of gender, age, appearance of age, and evaluation of the patient's clothing, whether it is suitable for the patient's age and gender, whether the patient is clean or not, and noting any strange odor from it, such as alcohol, And attention to the size of the focus of the eye, and attention to the presence of any bruises for hidden places and effects of injection, because this raises the possibility of the patient's use of drugs or prohibited substances, or any signs of attempted suicide at the wrist area.
The patient's behavior is evaluated by attention to the presence of any involuntary movements, as well as attention to avoid the patient visual communication; when the patient avoids visual communication with the doctor and with around him; this indicates that the patient  is in the case of depression, and also must evaluate the patient in general ; Is it quiet or agitated, or is there any jerk in the hands or not?

Examine the patient's speech

 Does the patient speak quickly or slowly or normally, in addition to the high or low voice, and speaks with the degree of normal voice, and whether to speak understandable words or not and attention to the severity of the tone spoken by the patient.

Examine the patient's mood

The patient's mood is assessed from two viewpoints: the doctor's point of view and the patient's point of view. First, the patient is asked about his temperament, how he feels, and then the patient's mood is assessed from the doctor's perspective. Patient from case to the case be happy and laugh and then cry after seconds.

Examine the patient's thoughts

The examination of the patient's thoughts is divided into two parts; examining the contents of the patient's thoughts, and examining the patient's thinking process. The examination of the patient's thinking process is to see how the patient uses the language to communicate the thoughts in his mind. Are ideas meaningful or revolve around a certain idea and do not reach the meaning required, and the extent of coherence and clarity of ideas and logic, and whether the patient expands in the presentation of his ideas, as if it continues in a vicious circle without reaching the desired idea, in addition, to note the volatile thoughts in the patient.
The content of the ideas is examined so that the type of ideas expressed by the patient can be described. For example, delusion patients are thought to be erroneous beliefs believed by the patient, stable, unshakable, and unacceptable in the patient's society. The doctor cannot change it by logic, or his thoughts may reflect the phobia of something. It means the patient is suffering from fear of something. This fear is illogical, or his thoughts may reflect suicidal ideas or the patients suffering from alien ideas.

Examine the cognitive disorders

Hallucinations, delusions, and alienation from reality or dissipation of personality, the three main factors in cognitive disorders. As for hallucination, it means that the patient is aware of the existence of something without the presence of something external that incites this perception, and hallucinations can be visual or auditory or sensory or delusions, but delusions mean that there is an external influence, but the patient perceives this effect as something else, and alienation from reality or dissipation of the person means that the patient feels like separate from his surroundings or his mind and ideas.

Examine the patient's perception

This section is divided into a group of sections which is the examination of the patient's awareness of whether he is alert or feel dizzy or tired, and then examine the orientation: This is done by asking the patient about where he is now and time and the person who asks him, and the examination of memory. By asking the patient a question that depends on his concentration and attention, such as asking the doctor to repeat the patient's words or numbers, then examine the new memory by asking about something happened hours or days ago, and examining the distant memory by asking the patient about something happened long ago, The patient's ability to read, write and evaluate Hungarian concepts is examined typically when the patient; so are examined abstract concepts when the patient; by asking about the similarities between several words, and the understanding of such simple.

Examine the patient's ability to guess 

Check the patient's ability to judge a particular situation, to know the patient's ability, to guess the consequences of things; by giving the patient a case and evaluating his judgment, and usually asked about a situation related to his condition, He will do it if he finds an envelope in the street.

Examine the patient's insight

By examining the patient's awareness and understanding of the nature of his illness and being mentally ill and that he needs treatment, where the doctor tries to know the extent of the patient's understanding and understanding of the effects of psychological illness on his relationships with others and his life, and the extent of the patient's desire to change, and the importance of examining the patient's insight to assess the commitment of the patient With the treatment prescribed by the doctor.

Conclusion
 The psychological conditions or mental disorders are marked abnormality in one's thinking, feelings, and behavior that disrupts one's ability to deal with others and meet the demands of life.
The severity and length of the symptoms vary depending on the people, disorders, and conditions, and everyone is susceptible to mental illness regardless of their gender, age, culture, religion, level of income or education. The psychological patient can be treated with appropriate medical care to live a normal and happy life.
Psychiatric and mental health workers succeed in treating multiple disorders, and the first major step is to undergo a comprehensive assessment by an efficient specialist in the treatment of mental illness.
However, people who suffer from this assessment will not benefit unless they have received appropriate treatment, for example, they should not hesitate to talk to others about their condition, treatment may require trained specialists to help them understand their illness and solve their daily problems and encourage them to continue treatment. Relatives or friends to play a positive role during these consultations through support and encouragement.


By: Mahtab Alam Quddusi



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