The Most Common Neurological Disorders - Symptoms, Causes and Complications

A neurological disorder is any disorder of the central and peripheral nervous system.
The most common neurological disorders include epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, brain tumors, cerebral palsy, Alzheimer's disease, and other dementia, as well as cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders, neurological infections, traumatic disorders of the nervous system due to head trauma.
Neurological disorders
What are the most common neurological disorders?

The Most Common Neurological Disorders - Symptoms, Causes and Complications

What are Neurological Disorders?

Neurological disorders are structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, the spinal cord, peripheral nerves, cranial nerves, nerve roots, neuromuscular junction, autonomic nervous system or other nerves that can result in a range of symptoms.

Examples of neurological disorder symptoms include muscle weakness, paralysis, seizures, pain, loss of sensation, poor coordination, confusion and altered levels of consciousness.

The causes of neurological disorders may include congenital abnormalities, genetic disorders, gluten sensitivity, brain injury, spinal cord injury, nerve injury, unhealthy lifestyle choices, or environmental health problems and infectious diseases caused by germs, viruses (ie, HIV, intestinal viruses, West Nile virus, zika virus), fungi and parasites. 

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What are the most common neurological disorders?

The most common neurological disorders include:
  • Epilepsy.
  • Alzheimer's disease.
  • Dementia.
  • Aneurysm.
  • Multiple sclerosis.
  • Cerebral palsy.
  • Bell's palsy.
  • Parkinson's disease.
  • Headaches and migraines.
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome
  • Neuropathy
  • Brain tumors.
  • Brain injury.
  • Back pain.
  • Scoliosis
  • Vertigo
  • Seizures
  • Stroke
  • Neuralgia
  • Spine tumor
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Spinal deformity and disorders
  • Disk disease of the neck and lower back
  • Birth defects of the brain and spinal cord.
  • Neuromuscular and related diseases

Symptoms of Neurological Disorders

The nervous system consists of two anatomic parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord and acts as a central processing station.

The peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord and transmits sensory information between the tissues, muscles, and nerves and connects the CNS to every other part of the body.

The symptoms of neurological disorders occur when these connections are disrupted.
The symptoms of neurological disorders may look like other medical conditions. Each individual may experience symptoms differently.

The following are the most common symptoms of neurological disorders:
  • A headache that changes or is different
  • Persistent or sudden onset of a headache
  • Tremors and seizures
  • Loss of sight or double vision
  • Loss of feeling or tingling
  • Partial or complete paralysis
  • Partial or complete loss of sensation
  • Memory loss
  • Lack of coordination
  • Impaired mental ability
  • Decreased alertness
  • New language impairment
  • Difficulty reading and writing
  • Poor cognitive abilities
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Weakness or loss of muscle strength
  • Muscle wasting and slurred speech
  • Back pain that spreads to the feet, toes or other parts of the body

Causes of Neurological Disorders

Neurological disorders can affect anyone and risk factors are different for different types of neurological disorders.
The exact causes and risk factors of neurological disorders can be vast depending on the type that a person is suffering from or has suffered from.

Traumatic causes of neurological symptoms may include:
  • The detachment of nerves from the spinal cord
  • Compression, crushing or severing of nerves
  • Slipped vertebral disks or other spine conditions
  • Fracture or dislocation of a bone
  • Burns
  • Gunshot injury
  • Electrical injury
  • Physical assault
Autoimmune or infectious causes of neurological disorder symptoms may include:
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • Varicella-zoster virus infection
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome
  • Hepatitis C
  • Lyme disease
  • Other bacterial and viral infections of the brain or meninges
Systemic causes of neurological disorder symptoms may include:
  • Prolonged exposure to toxins
  • Alcohol or illicit drug abuse
  • Repetitive stress injuries
  • Connective tissue disorders
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Hormonal disorders
  • Vascular disorders
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • Diabetes
  • Nutritional deficiencies
  • Medication side effects
Serious or life-threatening causes of neurological disorder symptoms may include:
  • Head trauma
  • Encephalitis
  • Meningitis
  • Transient ischemic attack
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Stroke
  • Shock
  • Rabies

What are the potential complications of neurological disorders?

The potential complications of neurological disorders may include:
  • Permanent physical disability
  • Permanent nerve damage
  • Permanent or chronic pain
  • Paralysis or inability to move a body part
  • Sleep disorder
  • Poor quality of life
  • Amputation
  • Spread of infection
  • Spread of cancer

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