Bipolar Disorder - Symptoms, Types, Causes and Complications - How to Prevent Manic Depression

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic depression, is a psychological disorder characterized by mood swings. 
Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes abnormal changes in energy, mood, activity levels, and the ability to perform day-to-day tasks. 
Major symptoms may include emotional highness (mania or hypomania) and elevation (depression). They can be of varying intensity with periods of stability and stillness. 
There are 4 basic types of bipolar disorder; bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder and bipolar disorder due to a medical health problem or other substance abuse. 
All of them include obvious changes in mood, energy and activity levels.
bipolar disorder
How to prevent mood swings and bipolar disorder (manic depressive episodes)?

Bipolar Disorder - Symptoms, Types, Causes and Complications - How to Prevent Mood Swings and Manic Depression

What is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder, formerly known as "manic depressive psychosis" is a psychological disorder characterized by mood imbalance.

Bipolar disorder is a psychological state of mind that causes excessive mood swings that include elevations (mania or mild mania) and emotional depression. The disease may be serious and may pose a serious obstacle to daily life functioning.

The range of mood swings or bipolar disorder may occur rarely or several times a year.
While most individuals will experience some emotional symptoms among the groups, some may not suffer any of them.

Extreme mood changes in bipolar disorder may last for weeks, or even a few months, to disrupt the management of normal life in people who suffer from it. It also affects the family and the circle of close friends.

When you become depressed, you may feel sad or desperate, lose interest or enjoy most activities.

When your mood turns into mania or hypomania, you may feel jubilant, full of energy, or unusually angry.
These mood swings can affect sleep, energy, activity, decision-making, behavior, and the ability to think clearly.

Much of recent research suggests that bipolar disorder has many symptoms, which is why many people with this disorder are not diagnosed.

The disorder of manic depressive psychosis is generally worse if not treated.
The proportion of people who commit suicide due to bipolar disorder is high.

Although bipolar disorder is a chronic condition for life, you can control mood swings and other symptoms.  
In most cases, bipolar disorder can be treated by appropriate and effective medication and psychological counseling, and life can be managed naturally, pleasantly and fruitfully.

Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

There are several types of bipolar disorder and related disorders. They may include bipolar I, Bipolar II, cyclothymia, NOS, etc.

Symptoms of bipolar disorder differ according to the types of BD and qualities of mania, hypomania, and depression.
Symptoms can cause unexpected changes in mood and behavior, leading to severe distress and difficulty in life.

Types of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder can be divided into two main types:

Bipolar I disorder:  Type 1 is marked by one or more manic episodes or mixed episodes; it means at least one mania you may have preceded or followed by hypomanic episodes.

A person usually suffers from periods of depression as well. Bipolar I is characterized by severe manic episodes.
In some cases, mania can lead to separation from reality (psychosis).

Bipolar II disorder: You have had at least one major depression and at least one mild mania, but you have never had a mania.

Bipolar II has diagnosed at least one episode of hypomania after one or more major depressive episodes, with possible intervals of mood level between the episodes.

The hypomanic episode, in its symptoms, resembles a normal mania but its symptoms are milder, lasting only a few days, and not very dangerous.

When the bouts of bipolar disorder occur, the patient may feel joyful, with a certain concern and changes in his daily performance, but is generally able to continue his normal life, without having to stay in the hospital.

In Type II depressive episodes, the periods of depression are longer than in manic episodes.

Cyclothymia: This is a mild type of bipolar disorder. Mood disturbance involves mood swings and fluctuations at a great pace and speed, but peak moments and rocky moments are not as serious as a bipolar disorder at its peak.

Disturbance of cyclic mood: You have had several episodes of hypomania for at least two years - or one year in children and teenagers - or a bout of depression (but less severe than severe depression).

Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): Bipolar disorder that does not follow a certain pattern is called “Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)” (e.g. the recurrence of hypomanic episodes without depressive symptoms, or very rapid fluctuations and swings between some manic symptoms and some depressive symptoms).

Other types of bipolar disorder: These include, for example, bipolar disorders and related disorders caused by the use of certain drugs, alcohol or medical condition, such as Cushing's disease, multiple sclerosis or stroke.

Bipolar disorder of type II is not a mild form of bipolar disorder of type I, but its diagnosis is separate.
While manic episodes of type I bipolar disorder can be acute and serious, individuals with type 2 bipolar disorder can become depressed for longer periods, which can result in significant disability.

Although bipolar disorder can occur at any age, it is usually diagnosed during the teen years or early twenties.
Symptoms may vary from person to person and may vary over time.

Read more: Mood Swings Symptoms, Causes, and Complication

How Many Stages of Bipolar are There?

Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder - symptoms, types, causes and complications
Stages of Bipolar Disorder
Symptoms of manic depressive psychosis generally, change behavior patterns.
Primary signs and symptoms may range from mild to very severe and very serious.
There may also be periods of life during which there is no effect.

Mania and Hypomania
Mania and hypomania are two different types of seizures, but they have the same symptoms.

Mania is an extremely elevated, expansive and excitable mood usually associated with bipolar disorder.

Hypomania is an emotional state characterized by a distinct period of persistently elevated or irritable mood and persistent disinhibition that differs from the typical behavior of a person when in a non-depressed state.

Mania is more severe than hypomania and causes more obvious problems in work, school, and social activities, as well as difficulties in relationships with others.
Mania may also lead to separation from reality (psychosis) and requires hospitalization for treatment.

1. The stage of mania in bipolar disorder
Signs and symptoms that may appear at manic episodes and hypomanic episodes in bipolar disorder may include:
  • Hyper Optimism or immensely provocative
  • An excessive feeling of well-being and self-confidence
  • A flaw in the arbitration of the mind
  • Poor decision-making - for example, excessive purchase, sexual exposure or foolish investment
  • Fast speech or extraordinary chatter
  • The frequency of ideas or aggressive behavior
  • Passionate emotions
  • Increased physical activity
  • Serious behavior character
  • Excessive spending on money
  • Strong desire to work and achieve goals
  • Strong sexual desire
  • Lack of need to sleep
  • Miles to easily distract
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Consumption of addictive substances

2. The stage of depression in bipolar disorder
Severe depressive episodes include severe symptoms that cause significant difficulty in performing daily activities, such as work, school, social activities, or relationships.
Signs and symptoms that may appear in the severe depressive episodes in bipolar disorder may include:
  • A depressed state of mood, such as feeling sad, empty, desperate, or crying
  • Despair and hopelessness
  • Loss of weight in the absence of a good diet, weight gain, low appetite or height
  • Thinking about suicide or planning it
  • The feeling of lack of value or seriousness or inappropriate guilt
  • Either excessive insomnia or excessive sleep (sleep disorder)
  • Either boredom or slow behavior
  • Appetite disorder or a sense of unhappiness
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Lack of interest in daily activities 
  • Low ability to think, focus, or frequency
  • Anxiety and nervousness
  • Chronic pain without apparent cause

Other types of bipolar disorder symptoms:
In addition, some people with bipolar disorder remain vulnerable to recurrent and frequent bipolar disorder.
This definition applies to at least four mood swings within twelve months. These mood swings occur quickly, sometimes a few hours apart. When it comes to a mixed situation of bipolar disorder, the symptoms of both mania and depression appear simultaneously and in parallel.

Acute bipolar disorder, in particular, can lead to a total psychotic disorder (psychosis) or even to an absolute separation from reality.
Symptoms of absolute depressive mania may include hearing sounds or seeing hallucination and strong and real faith in things that are not true.

Symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents
It can be difficult to identify the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.
It is often difficult to ascertain whether these are normal fluctuations, stress or trauma results, or signs of mental health problems other than bipolar disorder.

Children and adolescents may experience major depressive episodes or manic episodes or mild obsessions, but the pattern may differ from that of adults with bipolar disorder. The mating can quickly change during seizures.
Some children may experience periods without mood symptoms between seizures.

The most prominent signs of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents may include severe mood swings different from their normal mood swings.

Other characteristics of bipolar disorder
Signs of bipolar disorder I and II may include other characteristics, such as distress, anxiety, depression, psychosis, etc.
Timing may include symptoms and a diagnostic type such as mixed or rapid cycling.

Also, bipolar symptoms may occur during pregnancy or change during the seasons.

Causes and Risk Factors of Bipolar Disorder

No real information is available, so far and the exact cause of bipolar disorder is not well known. However, there appears to be a range of biochemical processes (biochemistry), genetic and environmental factors that influence the appearance of bipolar disorder:

Biochemical processes: Research conducted using advanced technological means by imaging shows that some bipolar disorder patients have significant physiological changes in their brains.

Genetic factors: Some studies suggest that bipolar disorder is more common in people with close relatives (blood relatives), who also have bipolar disorder.

Environmental factors: It is widely believed that the environment has a certain central role as a cause of bipolar disorder.
 But research on twin twins has shown that one twin can develop bipolar disorder while the other twin does not.
This means that genetic factors alone are not enough to stimulate the emergence of the disease.

It is estimated that about 1% of the total population, usually, suffers from bipolar disorder.
However, a number of researchers believe that bipolar disorder is occurring in succession and that an additional number of people develop other forms of the disorder, bringing together the proportion of people with autism to 6% of the total population.

Moreover, it is possible that some people with the disorder are not diagnosed, because they do not go for medical treatment, as a result of the false diagnosis that they are depressed, as their symptoms do not fit the diagnostic criteria adopted.

Type I bipolar disorder affects an equal number of women and men alike, while Type II, the more frequent type of disorder, is more prevalent among women.
This disorder, of both sexes, occurs in ages 15 to 30 years, in most cases.
Factors that may increase the risk of manic depressive disorder:
  • Close to the blood  relatives suffering from bipolar disorder
  • Periods of extreme tension
  • Consumption of addictive substances
  • Sharp changes in lifestyle, such as the death of a loved one

What Part of the Brain is Affected by Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder
What are the effects of bipolar disorder on the brain?

Complications of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder, if not properly and effectively treated, can lead to serious emotional and psychological problems that may be accompanied by economic and even legal problems that affect the various areas of the daily life of the patient.
Complications that may result from bipolar disorder may include:
  • Suicidal thoughts and action
  • Hyperactivity of alcohol and addictive substances
  • Judicial problems
  • Economic problems
  • Problems in married life
  • Isolation and social exclusion
  • Dysfunctional tasks, at work, at school or at home
  • Concurrent health conditions
If you suffer from bipolar disorder, you may also suffer from another health problem that needs to be treated alongside bipolar disorder.
Some cases may increase the symptoms of bipolar disorder or reduce the chances of successful treatment.
Examples include:
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Eating disorders
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Problems of alcoholic or narcotic substances
  • Physical health problems, such as heart disease, thyroid problems, headache and obesity

When to visit a doctor
Despite extreme mood swings, people with bipolar disorder often do not realize the extent of the damage their emotional instability causes to their lives and the lives of their loved ones, and do not receive the treatment they need.

If you are like some people with bipolar disorder, you may enjoy orgasmic feelings and more productive cycles.
However, this euphoria always follows an emotional breakdown, which can cause you to be depressed and depressed - and even bring you into a financial, legal, or personal relationship.

If you have any symptoms of depression or mania, visit your doctor or mental health professional.
Bipolar disorder does not improve on its own. Treatment from a psychologist with experience in treating bipolar disorder can help you control your symptoms.

Bipolar Disorder Prevention

There is no proven way to prevent bipolar disorder completely; however, some precautionary measures and therapies may help prevent bipolar disorder or other mental health conditions.

If you are diagnosed with bipolar disorder, there are some strategies that can help prevent simple symptoms from turning into full episodes of mania or depression:

Be aware of warning signs: Early treatment of the symptoms may prevent the seizure from getting worse.
You may have discovered a pattern for your bipolar disorder and the stimuli that lead to it.
Continue with your doctor if you feel that you are entering into a bout of depression or obsession. Engage your family and friends in the warning note.

Avoid drugs and alcohol: Drinking alcohol and recreational drug use may exacerbate symptoms and increase the likelihood of recurrence.

Take medications exactly as directed: If you tend to stop treatment suddenly, but do not do.
Stopping treatment or reducing the dose may cause the effects of withdrawal or worsening of your symptoms.

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