Saturday, March 30, 2019

The Most Common Diseases of the Endocrine System - An Overview of Endocrine Disorders

endocrine system
The endocrine disorder is a pathological condition caused by excessive or deficient hormone production of endocrines (The glands that secrete hormones directly in the blood) such as the pancreas, pituitary gland, thyroid, and adrenal glands. The most common diseases of the endocrine system include pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, pancreatic insufficiency, hyperthyroidism, pituitary tumors, adenoma, and diabetes.

The Most Common Diseases of the Endocrine System - An Overview of Endocrine Disorders


Endocrine Glands

Endocrine glands are found all over the body and are distinguished from the rest of the glands that produce their hormones directly into the bloodstream and do not need channels to transport them. Endocrine hormones are chemical and protein compounds of great importance in controlling the chemical balance in the body, which affect the endocrine production of hormones and control their levels in the blood. 
An endocrine system is a group of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, tissue function, sexual function, sleep, mood, etc. The endocrine system consists of a group of glands alongside the pancreas.
 Each gland depends on the secretion of the other endocrine systems in a complex and unorganized symmetry, in addition to its compatibility with other body glands, and their effects on hormones. The most important endocrine system in the body is the pituitary gland, the pancreas, the thyroid gland,  the adrenal gland, the zygote, the pineal gland, and the gonads in both sexes; ovaries, and testicles. 

Endocrine Disorders

The hormones produced by the endocrine glands are carefully balanced. If any defect occurs in one of these glands, it is indicated by examining the levels of their hormones in the blood, and whether there is a deficiency or a rise in their levels, which is a diagnosis of the disorder of the endocrine gland


The Most Common Types of Endocrine Disorders

Here is a list of all the diseases that belong to the field of the endocrine system. Read about the most famous diseases about which you probably have not heard before:

Pancreatic Cancer
The pancreas is a large internal organ located horizontally in the lower posterior section of the abdominal cavity. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digestion and hormones that help regulate the metabolism of sugars(carbohydrates) in the body.

The pancreas is about 15 centimeters in size and resembles a pear on its side. The pancreas is a central organ of the digestive system.. It secretes hormones, which include insulin which helps the body to treat sugars. It also produces digestive acids that help the body digest food.

Pancreatic cancer begins in pancreatic tissue. The chances of recovery from pancreatic cancer are very slim, even if pancreatic cancer is diagnosed at a very early stage. It tends to erupt too quickly and is detected only in very early stages. This is the main reason that this cancer causes the highest percentage of deaths caused by cancer. The symptoms of pancreatic cancer often occur only after cancer has reached a relatively advanced stage, and the tumor can no longer be surgically removed.

Types of pancreatic cancer
Cell types that have a role in pancreatic cancer help determine the most appropriate and effective treatment. Types of pancreatic cancer include:

Cancer arises in pancreatic ducts - Adenocarcinoma: cancer that is formed in cells lining the pancreas channels which help in the production of digestive acids. The majority of cases of pancreatic cancer are of this type of glandular cancer, which is sometimes called "tumors with external hormonal secretion".
Cancer arises in hormone production cells: Cancer is formed in cells that produce hormones inside the pancreas. It is also called "tumors with internal hormonal secretion". Tumors of this kind are very rare.

Pancreatitis
The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach and next to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine).

The pancreas has two functions:

1. The secretion of powerful digestive enzymes into the gut that helps digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

2. Insulin and Glucagon are released into the bloodstream. These hormones are responsible for the treatment of sugars within the bloodstream and regulate the process of storing food in the body and its subsequent use to produce energy.

Damage caused by pancreatitis occurs when these enzymes become active before they are released into the small intestine and thus attack the tissues of the pancreas itself.

There are two types of pancreatitis: Acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis.
Acute pancreatitis: Acute pancreatitis develops over a short period of time. Pancreatitis may be exacerbated, in most cases, by gallstones or by excessive alcohol consumption. Other causes of this type of pancreatitis include: taking medications, exposure to infections, exposure to injuries, an imbalance in the metabolic process or metabolic surgery.
Chronic pancreatitis: Chronic pancreatitis often occurs in the wake of acute pancreatitis or a continuous inflammation of the pancreas. More than 70% of cases of chronic pancreatitis appear as a result of excessive alcohol consumption for a long period of time. Among other, less common causes, there are metabolic disorders in the body.

Pancreatic Insufficiency
Pancreatic insufficiency is the condition of the pancreas, due to damage or lack of pancreatic tissue. Usually, the cause is chronic pancreatitis of the pancreas. The most common cause is excessive drinking, while other causes include metabolic disorders (eg cystic fibrosis), pancreatic tissue removal due to the tumor, or widespread pancreatic damage due to chronic pancreatitis.

Up to 90% of the tissues of the pancreas do not generally lead to clinical symptoms, except for abdominal pain, which is often associated with the underlying primary factor, not with pancreatic function.
As the disease progresses, signs of pancreatic weakness appear to perform. At first, the work of external secretions - the secretion of digestive juices - is reflected in the absorption disorder of various nutrients.

The insufficiency of fat absorption leads to Steatorrhea, weight loss and lack of fat-soluble vitamins. The lack of absorption of proteins and carbohydrates contributes to weight loss and signs of malnutrition, such as general weakness, muscle atrophy, and osteoporosis.
As the damage progresses, internal secretions - secretion of hormones - especially insulin, which causes diabetes, also become infected. In imaging tests (X-ray, CT, and ultrasound), calcification usually occurs within the pancreas, with the disappearance of healthy pancreatic tissue.

Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is a disease caused by a deficiency of thyroid gland, thyroxine (T4-Thyroxine) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the tissues of the body. The causes of the disease are divided into three main groups:

Primary hypothyroidism: When the thyroid gland is unable to produce hormones because of factors that have damaged the gland.
Secondary hypothyroidism: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) production in the pituitary gland (Hypophysis), the thyroid hormone, is impaired.
Tertiary hypothyroidism: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) production in the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland control hormone, is impaired.

Pituitary Tumors
The pituitary gland is located in the base of the brain, just behind the nose, and does not exceed the size of the pea. However, despite its small size, the pituitary gland is an essential part of the endocrine system (the organ responsible for secretion of hormones). The pituitary secretes a number of individual hormones, such as the growth hormone (Somatostatin) and prolactin hormone. It is also responsible for the secretion of a number of hormones that affect other glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, testicles, and ovaries. In fact, the human body is almost devoid of organs that are not affected by the pituitary gland. It affects blood pressure, weight, growth, reproductive system, and other organs.

Pituitary tumors can cause disorders in the functioning of the hormonal system, where this can begin by releasing the hormones without control. On the other hand, the tumor can inhibit the secretion of hormones properly, without it is the secretion of hormones itself.
Most pituitary tumors are an adenoma, which means that tumors do not penetrate the layers close to them and do not move to distant members.
There are several ways to treat the gland and tumors, from the use of drugs that can control the growth and development, and the eradication of the tumor itself.

Adenoma
Glandular tumors (Adenoma) appear in the digestive tract along the stomach to the rectum (the latter part of the colon) but are very common in the colon in men and women in general in the age of 40 and above.
Adenoma is a benign tumor originating from the glandular epithelium, or those that produce glandular structures.
A benign tumor is a tumor that does not pose a risk to the patient's life. It is well-limited, non-recurrent after removal and does not send stretches to other organs in the body.

Adenoma appears in different organs of the body, such as breasts, larynx, gallbladder, liver, pituitary glands, kidneys, salivary glands, thyroid, digestive system, stomach, small intestine, and colon.
It can be very few, especially in a disease called familial polyposis. Tumors are probably very small but may be up to 5-6 cm or more. Tumors may also be glandular trunk or without the trunk.

Diabetes mellitus (DM)
Diabetes mellitus (DM), simply known as Diabetes, is the most common endocrine/metabolic disorder. It is a chronic disease caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin
or when the body is unable to use the insulin produced by the required form,
Insulin is the hormone that regulates blood sugar. The high blood sugar without control leads to damage in many organs of the body in the long term, especially in the nerves and blood vessels.

Types of diabetes
There are three major types of Diabetes mellitus:
Type 1 diabetes: This is the first type of insulin-dependent diabetes, which begins in the youth or childhood, and is characterized by the lack of insulin production, which requires the use of insulin daily, and there is no means to prevent it so far. The symptoms of diabetes are excessive urination, thirst, weight loss, visual disturbances, and feeling tired.

Type 2 diabetes: It is known to be non-insulin-dependent or early-onset diabetes, due to the inability of the body to use insulin effectively; it often results from obesity, physical laziness,
The symptoms of diabetes are the same symptoms of type 1 diabetes, but they are often less clear. This type of diabetes is often not diagnosed after the occurrence of complications.


Gestational diabetes: It is hyperglycemia that increases the glucose rate above the normal rate without reaching the rate necessary for the diagnosis of diabetes. It occurs during pregnancy, and it is noted that women who develop gestational diabetes are more at risk of complications of pregnancy and childbirth and others, and they and their children are more likely to develop type 2 Diabetes in the future. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed by prenatal screening, not by the above symptoms.

By: Mahtab Alam Quddusi
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