ABS or an anti-lock braking system is a safety anti-skid braking system that prevents the vehicle's wheels from locking in an emergency or harsh braking conditions.
ABS system is used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, and buses.
What is an Anti-lock Braking System and How Does It Work?
Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS)
An Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is a piece of safety equipment used on aircraft and on land vehicles, such as motorcycles, cars, trucks, and buses.
ABS system increases the driver's control of his vehicle while driving and prevents it from locking.
The ABS system consists of sensors installed on the wheel, which contribute to increasing the speed of rotation of the wheel in microprocessors when the wheel increases rotation due to sliding tires, or the loss of adhesion friction force, the control unit indicates a hydraulic or electric shaper that regulates the pressure of the brake line to prevent Locking the wheels.
When these sensors sense the risk of slipping as a result of the driver pressuring the brake pedal, the system begins increasing the brake force hundreds of times. This keeps the surface of the tire high in contact with the road and allows it to be steered while stopping the vehicle.
In 1929, Gabriel Voisin invented the ABS system. The primitive system was first used for threshold braking on aircraft at a time when the validity of this system in cars had not yet been tested.
This is similar to the fact that a driver presses the brake pedal very quickly for a vehicle that is not equipped with ABS, but the ABS system is faster than it, as the wheels continue to rotate, while maintaining the driver's ability to drive the car and stop for a shorter distance.
Types of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
The types of ABS system differ according to the type of engine used in the vehicle in terms of the number of valves and the number of speed sensors, as follows:
Four-channel, four-sensor ABS: This is one of the best types; It provides individual wheel control to ensure maximum braking force. This system has speed sensors on all four wheels and a separate valve for each.
Three-channel, three-sensor ABS: This type of system provides full control of the front wheels of the vehicle. Each of them has a separate valve and a special sensor, while the two wheels at the rear have a valve and a joint sensor between them, which may lead to ineffective control of their brakes, as a result of the possibility that one of the wheels may lock while stopping.
One-channel, one-sensor ABS: This system is similar to the three-channel system that includes one valve for both rear wheels, which may result in inefficiency of the locking.
It also contains a single sensor that can be found near electrical contact on the distinguishing point on the rear axle of the car.
How Does Anti-lock Braking System Work?
How ABS System Works
ABS is part of an overall stability system that monitors wheels' under heavy braking.
In the ABS system, there are speed sensors that are installed on the vehicle's wheels, and these sensors contain gears that rotate at the same speed as the wheels of the car.
Also in these sensors, there is a magnet around a coil of wires to create a magnetic field that is directly proportional to the speed of the car's wheels.
If the smart sensors detect that the wheel is about to lock and stop moving, the system will release the brakes.
The ABS system also has a central control unit that is responsible for monitoring the wheels' speed and sensing that a decrease in vehicle speed is caused as a result of using the brakes or reducing the speed.
Within the framework of mentioning the mechanism of the ABS system in the car, it must be emphasized that this system used in brakes cannot operate alone and does not replace the main brake system in vehicles, but it regulates the operation of the main brake system.
When you Press the brake pedal in the presence of the ABS system, the hydraulic control in this system works to operate the brakes and stop them repeatedly unlike what happens in the regular brake system.
This principle is applied to the wheels of the car where the speed is gradually discharged through the sensors in this system as a result of its response to the speed reduction in the main brake system.