What Really Causes Cancer and How to Prevent it?

Cancer is the second most deadly disease in the world after cardiovascular disease. Let's find out what actually causes cancer and how to prevent cancer naturally.

Causes of Cancer, Cancer Prevention

What Really Causes Cancer and How to Prevent Cancer?

Cancer is a number of diseases characterized by the growth of abnormal cells that can invade and destroy normal body tissue. Cancer can spread throughout the body.


Cancer is the 2nd most deadly disease after cardiovascular disease (heart attack, stroke, etc.). Lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer are the top deadliest cancers. There are several clinical terms used for certain general types of cancer such as carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma and brain and spinal cord tumors. The advances in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention are improving survival rates for many cancers.


In this article, Dr. Sandeep Nayak who is one of the best Surgical Oncologists in India explains “what really causes cancer & also some prevention measures” too.


Symptoms:

Cancer signs and symptoms vary depending on the body part affected. Some non-specific signs and symptoms of cancer include:

  • Fatigue
  • lump or thickening Under-the-skin 
  • Unwanted weight loss or gain
  • Yellowing, darkening, or reddening of the skin, unhealing wounds, or changes to existing moles
  • Constipation or urinary changes
  • Coughing or trouble breathing
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Hoarseness
  • Constant indigestion or stomach ache 
  • Unexplained muscle or joint pain
  • Undiagnosed fevers or night sweats
  • Bleeding or bruising

When to see a doctor?

Make an appointment with your doctor if you have persistent symptoms.


If you don't have any symptoms but are worried about your cancer risk, talk to your doctor. Inquire about your options for cancer screening.


Causes:

Mutations in the DNA of cells cause cancer. Each gene contains a set of instructions telling the cell what functions to perform, as well as how to grow and divide. Errors in the instructions can cause a cell to stop working normally or become cancerous.


What are the consequences of gene mutations?

gene mutations

A gene mutation can instruct a healthy cell to do one of the following:


Allow for rapid expansion

A gene mutation can instruct a cell to grow and divide at a faster rate than usual. This produces a large number of identical cells. This results in a large number of new cells, all of which have the same mutation.


Fail to prevent uncontrolled cell growth from occurring

Normal cells know when to stop growing, allowing you to have the exact number of each type of cell that you require. 


Cancer cells lose the ability to communicate with their environment (tumour suppressor genes), which tells them when to stop growing. A tumor suppressor gene mutation allows cancer cells to grow and accumulate.


In some cases, the mutation of a tumor suppressor gene allows cancer cells to continue to grow and accumulate in the body.


Make mistakes fixing DNA

DNA repair genes correct errors in a cell's DNA. By not correcting other errors, a DNA repair gene mutation can cause cancerous cells. A mutation in a DNA repair gene may result in the inability to correct other errors, resulting in the development of cancerous cells.


These are the mutations that are most frequently found in cancer patients. However, there are numerous other gene mutations that can contribute to the development of cancer.


What is the source of gene mutations?

Dr. Sandeep Nayan one of the leading doctors from India says that Gene mutations can occur for a variety of reasons:


Gene mutations are inherited from your parents. It is possible that you were born with a genetic mutation that you inherited from one or both of your parents. This type of mutation is responsible for only a small proportion of cancers.


Gene mutations that occur after birth are referred to as postnatal mutations. The majority of gene mutations occur after you are born and are not passed down through your family. 


Tobacco, radiation, viruses, cancer-causing chemicals (carcinogens), obesity, hormonal imbalances, chronic inflammation, and a lack of physical activity are just a few of the factors that can cause gene mutations in humans.


During the course of normal cell growth, gene mutations are common. Cells, on the other hand, are equipped with a mechanism that recognizes when a mistake has occurred and repairs the error. 


Occasionally, a clerical error is overlooked. This has the potential to cause a cell to become cancerous.


Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Doctors have identified several ways to reduce your risk of developing cancer, including the following:

Put an end to your smoking habit

Put an end to your smoking habit. If you smoke, you should stop. If you don't currently smoke. Cigarette smoking has been linked to a variety of cancers, not just lung cancer. Stopping now will lower your chances of developing cancer in the future.

Avoid excessive sun exposure

When exposed to the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays, you increase your chances of developing skin cancer. Staying in the shade, wearing protective clothing, or applying sunscreen can help you avoid overexposure to the sun.

Consume nutritious foods

Consume nutritious foods. Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables to keep your weight under control. Choose whole grains and lean proteins to supplement your diet. Processed meats should be consumed in moderation.

Exercise on at least five days of the week

Regular physical activity has been linked to a lower risk of cancer. On most days of the week, try to get in at least 30 minutes' worth of exercise. If you haven't been exercising regularly, start out slowly and work your way up to 30 minutes or more of activity per session.

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