Breast Cancer - Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Methods of Treatment

breast cancer
Breast Cancer - Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and methods of Treatment

Breast Cancer - Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Methods of Treatment

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is caused by abnormal growth of breast cells. This type of cancer is most common in women of all ages. Breast cancer usually begins in the inner lining of the milk ducts, where the breast is usually divided into four quarters. Cancer is often a severe tumor when pressed, sometimes linked to the nipple entering the breast. When cancer attacks the rest of the breast, the skin of the breast changes and the size of the skin gets closer to the size of the orange peel. The reason for this is to attack the lymph channels, leading to closure and the occurrence of edema in the breast.

Breast cancer symptoms

Symptoms of cancer can vary from patient to patient, but they are certainly similar in most of these symptoms:

  • The growth and enlargement of the mammary tissue, which ends up appearing as a solid block under the skin, is a clear symptom of breast cancer.
  • Symptoms of breast cancer are also apparent in the presence of certain tumors under one or both axes, which is the result of inflammation of the lymphatic tissues that are present there.
  • Abnormal and noticeable changes in the woman's breasts such as the appearance of tumors and bulges.
  • A significant change in breast size is unjustified, as it swells dramatically, looks great and heavy, and it is observed at the high rate temperature for the rest of the body parts.
  • An important shrinkage or reduction of the nipple from inside, without coming out of the blood, depending on the degree of infection, it can be in one or both breasts.
  • A change affecting the texture of breast skin, as it becomes rough, full of the protrusion, and the closest to the orange peel, with the spread of skin rash.
  • Changes in the skin color of the breast in terms of its density and tendency to redness.
  • Excessive secretions of exotic discharge from the nipple, besides milk, are mostly yellow.
  • Massive lump in the breast with no pain.

 Breast cancer stages

 Breast cancer stages are divided according to the size of the tumor and the adhesion of external breast, chest muscles and lymph nodes below the armpit. Therefore, breast cancer is divided into five stages:

Stage 0: There are two types of tumors in this phase:
A local cancerous tumor that spreads in the ducts, which is a pre-cancerous condition, and it can become enlarged cancer that spreads inside the breast or other areas adjacent to the breast.
A local cancerous tumor that spreads in the lobes or so-called lumbar bulges protrusions. It is also a non-cancerous condition, but it is a sign of increased sensitivity to the cancerous tumor patient compared to others.

Stage I: The first sign of the cancerous tumor, which also means that it is still in the breast and has not spread to other organs of the body.

Stage II: It is also an early stage in which cancer may infect tissues adjacent to the breast, and may spread in the lymph nodes under the armpit. This stage will be in two degrees:
The size of the tumor in the first stage does not exceed 2 cm with the presence of cancer cells in the lymph nodes.
It swells in the second stage to 5 cm or more but does not include lymph nodes.

Stage  III: This stage is called the name of advanced local cancer, where there is prevalence rate in the lymph nodes below the adjacent to reach the tissues near the breast, and this phase is at 3 degrees:
The tumor in the first stage exceeds 5 cm. The cancer cells are spread in the lymph nodes under the armpit and attach to each other or to adjacent vessels.
The tumor extends to adjacent tissues and chest muscles, and the lymph nodes are affected and attached to each other.
Lymph nodes are affected under the collarbone, above, and inside the chest as well.

Stage IV: In which cancer has spread to areas outside the breast parts such as lung, liver, and others. It is important to split the steps of the deployment on the planning of the treatment and the idea of patient status and what is waiting for it. The cancer success rate is measured after five years of starting treatment.

Breast cancer risk factors

There are many factors that may lead to breast cancer, and it may be confusing to some because of similarities with other diseases, so it is best to discuss the factors of breast cancer according to the specialist doctor. The most important of these factors are:

Gender: It affects women more than men
Age: The risk of cancer increases as a person ages, and is considered to be the most likely to be infected after the age of 50.
History and heredity: Breast cancer is more likely to occur if the patient has suffered from it and has been eradicated. It is also increased if there are cases of this disease in the first-degree family, namely the mother or sister.
Early menstruation: Menstrual hormones start to spread in the body, especially hormone estrogen, which negatively affects the proportion of breast tissue, and thus girls starting menstruation before twelve years. So the risk of breast cancer increases as well as those who continue their fiftieth session.
Late reproduction: A woman has more delay in delivery, the higher the estrogen hormone, which increases the activity of the cells, especially the breast cells, and increases the incidence of cancer. Birth also protects against cancer. Low birth increases the risk of breast cancer.
Hormone Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal drugs for more than 10 years adversely affects the cells and system of the body, especially in women who take estrogen, and pills.
Radiotherapy: Exposure to radiation, especially on the chest area, adversely affects the cells and helps them out of their pattern, and thus forms cancer cells.
Bad habits: obesity, overweight, smoking, and alcohol.

There are other factors that increase the risk of breast cancer, but they are classified as less important than the above: Dark women are more susceptible to breast cancer than white skin. Those living in the city suffer more from their counterparts living in rural areas.

Breast cancer diagnosis

Breast cancer is sometimes discovered after reaching the advanced stages, and it is too late for the treatment. Therefore, women over 20 years of age are advised to rely on primary breast tests. The examination is more important for people over 35 years of age.
The doctors will perform the necessary tests for patients with breast cancer or those who have the suspicion of infection, and the diagnosis is by assessing the results of the following tests:

  • Clinical tests of the breast.
  • Radiography monitors any changes in the shape of the breast, or detects subcutaneous lumps, and detects the presence of milky secretions that are yellowish.
  • Evaluation of tissue and case study.
  • Biopsies of central lymph nodes for laboratory study.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
  • Ultrasonic examination.
  • CT scan for the spread of cancer in other organs in the body.
  • A bone scan to detect the spread of cancer to bones.
  • PET scan, which is useful for precise phase determination in advanced cases.

Breast Cancer Treatment

  The treatment of breast cancer varies according to several factors, including the stage of development of cancer, the identification of appropriate treatment that varies depending on the age of the woman, type, size of the tumor, breast size, cancer reaching the lymph nodes, and many other things. Although the possibilities of cancer treatment are available, it is prudent to choose the appropriate treatment, which consists of Surgical treatment for the complete eradication of breast cancer, lymph nodes, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, and biotherapy.

Surgical treatment

 This is the best solution in most cases, especially the early ones. Early cancer stages are known through screening tests, and then surgical treatment is performed to eradicate the cancerous tumor and surrounding tissue. Surgery is divided into:
Removing the cancerous mass: The skin of the breast and cancerous mass are removed through this and sometimes the surrounding tissues are also removed. This treatment alone is not enough. Radiation therapy is often supportive after surgery.
Complete breast mastectomy: It targets the breast without lymph nodes or the rib cage muscles behind the breast. This procedure is performed if there is a lump that can not be removed or treated with radiation.
Radiated mastectomy: aimed at mastectomy and lymph nodes under the armpit, and it is performed when there is an enlarged lymph node during the physical test.
Lymph node dissection: It aims to determine the extent of its spread in the lymph nodes,  although it is important surgery, the eradication of the lymph nodes leads to some side effects, such as nerve disorder leads to loss of sensation in the hand or chest or feeling numbness and chronic pain.
Lymphatic edema: Hand swelling, redness, and fluid build-up. Frequent infections, as well as chronic pain, are the only treatment for physical therapy. Doctors, therefore, prefer to refrain from removing all lymph nodes.

Breast Reconstruction

The reconstruction method is used to maintain the external appearance of the breast. This procedure can be performed immediately after the mastectomy is completed, or after a period of time according to the patient's wishes. These repairs are either by artificial silicon or by moving other muscles from the body.

Hormonal therapy

Treatment with drugs is designed to limit estrogen receptors because breast cancer cells are contained and multiplied under the influence of this hormone, the treatment is limited to receptors to stop the proliferation of cancer tumors and decline. Hormonal therapy causes many side effects:
  • Extraordinary vaginal secretions.
  • Lack of platelets.
  • Irregular menstruation.
  • The possibility of cancer of the uterus when taking the patient treatment for a long time.

Biological therapy

Treatment with drugs to limit the future of HER 2 causes the proliferation of cancer cells. This treatment is used prior to surgery or in the treatment of advanced conditions. Biological therapy is used only when these receptors are present in cancer cells only.

Chemotherapy

Treatment with drugs slows down or completely stops cell proliferation. This treatment affects fast-growing cells, but its side effects are especially high on fast-growing tissues such as blood cells and others. These drugs are taken intravenously and not orally once a week for several weeks, and each treatment session extends to several weeks of taking medications.

Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy damages cancer cells, causing them to die. Radiation therapy is often performed when the patient is lying down and the radiation is directed at the affected organ. Radiotherapy is done 5-6 days a week for 5-6 weeks mostly.

 how to prevent breast cancer?

Although there is no definite way to prevent breast cancer, there is a range of tips that can help reduce this type of cancer.
Breastfeeding: Women breastfed are less likely to develop breast cancer than others.
Activity: Exercise for at least 20 minutes a day. 
Maintain a healthy weight within normal limits.
Stay away from bad habits, such as smoking, drinking alcohol.
Check with your doctor periodically.
Reducing the use of hormone therapy in menopause: it increases the likelihood of the spread of cancer if the use of more than five consecutive years.

statistics

Breast cancer is the most prevalent in the world in women,  the cases are most likely estimated in developed countries. In the United States, 50% of breast cancer cases occurred in women over the age of 65.

summary

 Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases in the world, and there are many factors that may lead to an increase in the likelihood of infection, most notably: family history, exposure to large amounts of estrogen, etc. It is divided into many types; it is divided into cancerous and obese cancers, The most important symptom is the presence of a tumor in the breast with a change in the color of the skin, and bumps in the skin, as well as increased secretions of the nipple, especially blood secretions. The main focus on the diagnosis of symptoms is the clinical examination and breast imaging. The third method used in diagnosis is the sampling of the histological examination. The treatment includes several types of surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormone therapy.

By: Mahtab Alam Quddusi


Breast Cancer - Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Methods of Treatment Breast Cancer - Stages, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Methods of Treatment Reviewed by The Scientific World on December 11, 2018 Rating: 5

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