Saturday, February 15, 2020

What is an Operating System and What are Different Types of Operating Systems?

An Operating System is system software that performs all the basic tasks like process management, file management, memory management, handling input and output and controlling peripheral devices.
The most widely used types of operating systems include: Batch operating system, Network operating system, Distributed operating system, Multiprogramming batch system, Multiprocessor system, Time-sharing operating system, and Real-time operating system.
Operating system
The most popular operating system in the world

What is an Operating System and What are Different Types of Operating Systems?

What is an Operating System (OS)?

An Operating System (OS) is an interface between a user and the hardware. 
The operating system is defined as a set of basic programs that manage the computer, organize all its tasks and make it easier for the user to take advantage of the equipment and accessories that make up the device.

The operating system can also be defined as the main program of any computer that is responsible for operating the device and running the rest of the programs properly.

The operating system enables the user to benefit from different application programs such as word processing program or computational business programs.

When the computer is turned on, the device copies the operating system files from the hard drive to memory, so that the CPU can execute the device commands without having to know the details of the processes inside the computer. 

The operating system requires programmers at the highest level to write, develop, maintain, these programs are called system programming languages.



What are the Most Widely Used Types of Operating Systems?

Since the first operating system was created, the operating system has developed over time to accommodate the most sophisticated functions.

Let's have a look at some of the most common types of operating systems used today.

Batch operating system
In a batch operating system, the user will prepare the work and assign it to a computer operator as a punch card device.

The computer operator then sets up a group of jobs according to their computing needs and implements them in batches to make sure faster-processing speed.
This is most suitable for those programs which require long calculation time without user's participation such as statistical analysis of large part of the data.

Network operating system
The network operating system runs on a server and allows access to computing resources to share files and printers between computers in the network and provides more stability and security of the system.
Users, data, applications, and security are managed on the server.

Distributed Operating System
The specific feature of the distributed operating system is that it has many central processors that are used by many users to run many real-time applications.

The distributed operating system also ensures that there are some floaty loads on the host machine while doing some heavy calculations.
This property has dramatically increased data exchange between sites and enabled the sharing of resources.

Multiprogramming Operating System
A multiprogramming operating system is an operating system that enables the software to run many programs on the computer at the same time.

The main purpose of multiprogramming operating systems is to improve system throughput and resource usage.
This purpose is achieved by arranging the computing functions in a way that ensures that the CPU always works to implement them at any one time.

Time-Sharing Operating System
A time-sharing operating system is a special type of multiprogramming operating system that is designed to accommodate many users and allows multiple computer programs to be run concurrently. 
It means that multiple users can access the same computer resources at the same time and they will not need to wait to use these resources.

Real-Time Operating Systems
In a real-time operating system, it is important that the inputs are obtained and processed in a very short period of time.
As a result, the operating system will have to guarantee that the events will be processed at a fixed time. 

There are two types of real-time operating systems: Hard real-time operating system and Soft real-time operating system. 

Some of these systems may allow multitasking features, but with specific features and special algorithms for scheduling to ensure that the shifting of the tasks is done according to their priorities so that the deadline for each task is completed.



Types of an operating system in terms of the number of programs
Multi-Tasking: Here the user is allowed to handle more than one program at the same time.

Single-Tasking: This system does not allow the user to run more than one program at the same time.

Types of operating systems in terms of the number of users
Multi-User software: A system that enables the software to be run on a computer by more than one user at the same time.


Single-User software: A system that does not allow more than one user to run software on the computer at the same time.


What is the Most Popular Operating System in the World?


The most common operating systems in the world include:


  • Windows Operating System (Windows OS).
  • Chrome Operating System (Chrome OS).
  • Google's Android Operating System (Android OS).
  • Apple iPhone Operating System (iOS).
  • Macintosh operating system (macOS).
  • Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS).
  • Linux Operating System.
  • Unix Operating System.
  • Ubuntu Operating System.
  • Haiku Operating System.
  • Menuet Operating System.
  •  eComStation Operating System.
  • Tails Operating System.

Read this article for more details: 

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