Infectious Diseases: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms 

Infectious Diseases: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment



What are Infectious Diseases?

Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They are not harmful or even naturally beneficial. However, certain organisms may cause diseases under certain conditions.
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by contamination and organisms. Infectious diseases arise when contaminated foreign bodies (FB) enter the human body. These foreign bodies are germs, bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Infectious diseases can be transmitted through infection from another human being, animals, contaminated food, or from exposure to any environmental factors that are contaminated with any of these objects.
These infections have many symptoms on the body, including high body temperature and aches, as well as other symptoms that vary depending on the location of the infection, the type, and severity of the infection.
Signs and symptoms vary according to the organism causing the infection, but they often include fever and fatigue. Minor infections can respond to rest and home remedies, while life-threatening infections may require hospitalization.
Many infectious diseases, such as measles or chickenpox, can be prevented with vaccinations. Frequent and thorough hand washing helps protect you from most infectious diseases.




Symptoms of Infectious Diseases

Each contagious disease has its own signs and symptoms, infectious diseases also have a variety of symptoms, the most infectious diseases may carry the following symptoms:
  • High body temperature (fever)
  • Anorexia
  • Diarrhea
  • Weakness
  • Burnout
  • Cough
  • Muscle aches.

Causes of Infectious Diseases

There are many causes of infection, including:

Bacteria: Bacteria are 
unicellular organisms or single-celled organisms that cause a wide range of diseases, from mild diseases such as streptococcal laryngitis, or urinary tract infections, to severe and difficult diseases, such as inflammation of the brain membranes or various fever diseases. These single-celled organisms are also responsible for diseases such as sore throat, and tuberculosis.

Viruses:  The virus is a living organism that minimizes the germ and does not have the ability to live independently. Viruses are smaller than bacteria. Viruses cause many diseases, including widespread diseases, such as common colds, including rare species such as AIDS.

Fungi: Fungi usually cause many skin diseases such as alopecia, tinea capitis or finger fungi. Fungi can cause difficult diseases that affect various organs in the body, such as the respiratory system or the nervous system.

Parasites: Parasites cause diseases such as malaria transmitted by a mosquito bite or river blindness. Other parasites may be transmitted to humans by animal feces.




Modes of Transmission of Infectious Diseases
The infection can be caught when coming into contact with a carrier of a contaminated factor with a disease such as:

Exposure to another person who is sick:  transmission from a sick person maybe through direct contact or through body fluids. Some animals are carriers of contaminated agents and are transmitted to humans when they receive a bite from the infected animal or by exposure to excretions from the animal by touch. Contamination may be transmitted to the fetus if the pregnant mother is infected, via the umbilical cord or at the time of birth through the birth canals. Infection may also be transmitted indirectly when the vector is a carrier of the contaminated agent but is not infected, for example:
When touching contaminated surfaces,  eating food containing contaminants, exposure to a contaminant carrier such as mosquitoes, fleas, and lice.

Insect Bites
Some germs rely on carrier insects - such as mosquitoes, fleas, lice, and ticks - to pass from host to host. These carriers are known as vectors. Mosquitoes can carry malaria parasites or West Nile virus, and deer ticks can carry bacteria that cause Lyme disease.

Food contamination
In another way, you can get infected by pathogenic spores through contaminated food and water. The mechanism of this transmission allows germs to move to many people from one source. For example, E. coli bacteria that are present in or on certain foods - such as raw hamburgers or unpasteurized fruit juice.

Direct Contact Transmission
Contact with an infected person or animal is an easy way to catch most infectious diseases. There are three ways in which infectious diseases can be directly communicated:

From a person to another: A common method of infectious disease is the direct transmission of bacteria, viruses or other germs from person to person. This can happen when a person infected with the bacteria or virus comes into contact with a healthy person, coughs, sneezes or kisses. They can also be spread through the fluid exchange as a result of sexual contact.

From animal to person: You can get sick by being bitten or scratched by an infected animal, even if it is a pet, and can be fatal in severe cases. Handling animal waste can also be dangerous. For example, you can get a cat disease by emptying your cat's litter box.

From mother to unborn baby: A pregnant woman can transmit germs that cause infectious diseases to the fetus. Some germs may pass through the placenta. Germs in the vagina may also be passed on to the baby during childbirth.

Indirect Contact Transmission
Organisms that cause the disease can also be transmitted through indirect contact. Many germs may live on nonliving objects, such as tabletops, door handles or taps. For example, when you touch a door handle that a person with the flu or cold has already experienced, you may catch the germs left by that person. If you then touch your nose, eyes or mouth before washing your hands, you might be infected.




Who is Most Susceptible to Infectious Diseases?
All people are susceptible to infections, but the risk for people with low immunity is higher and people with autoimmune diseases, people receiving steroids, or anti-cancer treatments, people who have had organ transplants and HIV / AIDS patients.

Risk factors
While anyone can carry infectious diseases, you may be more likely to develop the disease if your immune system is not functioning properly. This may occur in the following cases:

⇒You take steroids or other drugs that suppress the immune system, such as anti-rejection organs
⇒You have HIV or AIDS
⇒You have any types of cancer or other diseases that can affect your immune system
⇒In addition, some other medical conditions may expose you to infection, including implanted medical devices, malnutrition, various ages from the smallest to the largest and more.

Complications of Infectious Diseases

The condition of the contamination ends, usually quickly and without the need for a specific treatment, and even sometimes, the patient does not feel any symptoms when infected with these tablets.
However, different symptoms and complications are likely. For example, permanent damage to an organ may occur if it is contaminated, such as kidney infection (Pyelonephritis) or damage to other organs of the primary contamination center, such as rheumatic fever. There are also types of infections, which may increase the risk of diseases such as human papillomavirus (HPV), which increases the risk of uterine cancer.
Most infectious diseases have only minor complications. But diseases such as pneumonia, AIDS, and meningitis can be life-threatening. Few types of infection have been associated with increased long-term cancer risk:

⇒HPV is associated with cervical cancer
⇒Helicobacter pylori is associated with stomach cancer and peptic ulcers
⇒Hepatitis B and HCV have been linked to liver cancer
⇒In addition, some infectious diseases may become inactive, but they may reactivate again in the future - sometimes not until decades later. For example, someone who has had chickenpox may be at risk of developing herpes zoster later.




Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases

A large number of body systems are affected by contamination, so the tests needed to diagnose the infection are different depending on the clinical expectations of the attending physician. Infectious diseases are detected in the following ways:

Blood Test: It is possible to find indications of the process of contamination in the body through a blood test when conducting a census of white cells. In some cases, this test is sufficient to detect the type of contamination.

Urine Test: This test is important, especially when diagnosing infections that affect the urinary system, but beyond that, to detect contamination in other organs of the body.

Strep Throat Test: This test is commonly used to diagnose infections of the larynx and other respiratory diseases.

Imaging Test: Some cases require imaging tests: such as X-ray imaging, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Biopsy: Diagnosis by taking a sample from the affected area.

Treatment of infectious diseases

The types of treatments that are particularly suited to the pollutant vary, as the types of pollutants are different.

Antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by germs so that each type of bacterium has a different type of antibiotic. The main problem with the use of antibiotics is that exposure to antibiotics increases the ability of bacteria to resist these antibiotics. Therefore, it is important to use antibiotic treatments in a balanced manner.

Antiviral therapies depend on the treatment of diseases caused by viruses. There is no special treatment for all types of viruses. Treatments are available for herpes, influenza, hepatitis viruses and HIV.

In cases of fungus, there are many antifungal therapies. Ointments are used to treat skin infections caused by fungi, while antifungal remedies are taken by mouth or intravenously if the fungus contamination is in the internal organs.

Finally, in the event of contamination with parasites, various treatments are available, the best known of which is the treatment of malaria by quinine and its derivatives.

Note: This article is for information purposes only. We do not recommend any type of medication. Please consult your doctor before taking any type of medicine.



Prevention of infectious diseases

Many steps can be taken to reduce the risk of contamination:

Hand washing: especially before eating, after touching unprocessed foods, before eating a meal, after touching people with illnesses and after using the toilet. Try not to touch your eyes, nose or mouth with your hands, as this is a common way for germs to enter the body.

Get Vaccination: Vaccination can significantly reduce your chances of getting many diseases. Be sure to check out the vaccinations recommended for you, as well as your children. Vaccinations are available to prevent many infectious diseases caused by germs or viruses.

Maintain hygiene in the kitchen: Keep tables and other kitchen surfaces clean when preparing meals. Cook food at an appropriate temperature using a thermometer to check the level of flattening.  Refrain from leaving uncooked foods for a long time in the kitchen, without keeping them at an appropriate temperature.

Stay home when you feel sick: Do not go to work if you are vomiting or have a fever or diarrhea. Do not send your children to school if they also have these signs and symptoms.

Safe sex: It is important to have sex safely, to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted infections.

Travel wisely: If you're traveling abroad, talk to your doctor about any special vaccinations - such as yellow fever, cholera, hepatitis A or B, or typhoid fever - that you may need.

Conclusion:
Contamination is very common and usually does not threaten life. It is advisable to go for treatment in the following cases: when bitten by an animal or when having difficulty breathing, when coughing for more than a week, when severe head pain is felt, when seizures occur, skin rashes or swelling.

There are many steps that help prevent infectious diseases, including maintaining personal and general hygiene and avoiding exposure to patients.

Infectious Diseases: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Infectious Diseases: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Reviewed by The Scientific World on October 06, 2019 Rating: 5

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