Sunday, March 24, 2019

The Relationship between Environment and sustainable Economic development

sustainable development
Environmental Problems and Sustainable Development:

The Relationship between Environment and Sustainable Development: Theoretical Approaches to Environmental Issues

What is sustainable development?


Environment And Development


We can easily observe the close relationship between development and the environment. The first is based on environmental resources. Development cannot be done without environmental resources. Therefore, the disruption of resources in terms of corruption will have negative repercussions on the development process and the violation of its objectives. 

As development cannot be based on transboundary environmental resources. The damage to the environment and its resources is detrimental to human needs. Development should be the basis for consideration of the environment, the development and environment should be considered as such. Behold, the twin objectives of development is not achieved without the introduction of sound environmental policies.

The conflict between the environment and development that emerged in the early sixties of the twentieth century contributed in one way or another to delay the attention to the environment and to recognize the importance of the environment in development because the claim to protect the environment in response to the environmental disasters witnessed by the world as a result of industrial and technological activities and thus emerged this claim which stands in opposition to scientific and technological progress. 

The emergence of movements calling for the protection of the environment in the early 1960s as a reaction to the industrial degradation is a concern for the environment from the harmful dangers which were not new to man because of the deterioration by dealing with its resources, the old concern goes back to the times when the man moved the life of agriculture and the emergence of many customs and traditions in agricultural communities, which aims to organize the process of harvesting crops, and even the quality of cattle slaughtered and other customs and traditions, which still exist.
The early protection of the environment and its resources is very important. This is why some countries have appointed inspectors to ensure that agricultural land does not deteriorate as a result of misuse.

As for the environmental damage caused by the snow, some research has indicated that the Greek philosopher Plato wrote in a law that could be considered the principle of fining the polluter. Britain issued the first law to reduce the emission of smoke and waste disposal in 1273.

The relationship between man and the environment is an innate and eternal relationship as long as the environment is the framework from which man obtains the elements of his life as it is a result of meeting these needs of environmental resources and systems. 
This relationship has grown and escalated in meeting the needs during the different human ages, in which the human is reviewed spontaneously and instinctively, but there is a random deal and other damage suffered by the environment in later years, the era of the industrial revolution that began with the invention steam machine in the year 1763, where the emergence of many environmental disasters was the first disaster and then recorded in 1948 in America, where a number of factories for steel, sulfuric acid, and zinc production resulted in the deaths of twenty people and several diseases in addition to the occurrence of other environmental disasters in London and other industrialized countries but the most famous disaster in London in 1952 due to pollution of the atmosphere smog, which led to the deaths of four thousand people because of the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere.

These disasters have led to the promotion of environmental awareness and problems. The leakage of pesticide residues in the human food chain along with the negative effects of technology has led to environmental disasters. 
The need and the literature  warn the dangers of environmental pollution to the environment and organisms and accompanied by the emergence of movements that claim environmental protection and here emerged for the development and environment because the development had won victories from the industrial revolution without considering the environment and resources, it was behind their rejection of the demands that Environmentalists have been calling for it, particularly with respect to pollution and environmental impact assessment. 

Industrialists and developmentists considered pollution control and industrial facilities to be a costly issue. More expensive and more difficult than the preparation of appropriate controls at the foundation and the time necessary to control the harmful emissions, such as chemical elements resulting from the combustion of fuel in the facilities or in the manufacturing process seems always very short and takes a long time to show the results addition, but the methods used to address some Wastes may have a detrimental effect on the economy and monetary account.

Developmentists believe that there is no clear and precise way to measure the economic value of the benefits of finding a clean air or a cleaner lake or its value due to the social costs of public health or environmental pressures. Therefore, they are unable to provide overall estimates. To control pollution in other profitable enterprises and the pollution problem is difficult to overcome in a full economy. Developing countries need to take advantage of the amounts they will pay to protect or even control pollution in order to solve other economic or social problems of priority interest.

As a result, the conflict between the environment and development continued, ie, the depletion and damage to the environment for development. This is the difference between the supporters of the environment and the development. The results and disasters continued with the emergence of disasters and more serious problems. This led the United Nations to convene the Human Development Conference in 1972. Stockholm, Switzerland, which produced the Declaration on the Establishment of the United Nations Environment Program until a group of United Nations experts in the late seventies of the last century to decide our common future, which came out in the concept of sustainable development is to meet the needs of the present without prejudice to the needs of the in the coming year, the Portland Declaration of Our Common Destiny was a session in ending the environmental and development dispute. On this basis, issues and considerations were moved to a wider horizon, becoming an important part of economic and developmental policies and philosophies.

In 1983, the United Nations set up a World Commission on Environment and Development under the chairmanship of Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland and a group of experts to study the problems of the environment and development on the planet and to formulate proposals to solve them. Without harming through the formulation of a global program for change and the proposal of long-term strategies, and the outcome of the work of this committee to issue a book our common future, which brought a new concept of development is the concept of sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. 

The concept of sustainable development has led to the emergence of a new development philosophy that takes into account the limited natural environmental resources and the limits of the Earth's ability to withstand exhaustion stress on the one hand and pollution and degradation on the other.

Dialectic environment and development

The issue of environmental pollution is not the result of today, but it is an old one. The reasons are mainly due to the excesses of the developed world, especially in the consumption of various natural resources, whether renewable or non-renewable. The expansion of production of fossil energy sources, the exploitation of agricultural land and logging of forests Causes of increased pollution of air, water, and soil.

The problem of pollution of the environment is of an international nature. Pollutants of a country do not stop at their political borders but cross thousands of miles to affect the environment and well-being of other peoples.
The impact of this pollution extends beyond that; the negative impact of this pollution is due to the coming generations, which will find themselves in a real dilemma and do not know how to get out of it. Therefore, it was incumbent on this generation to pay attention to this issue and try to understand its complexity to solve the issue and preserve the environment. For both present and future generations.

The importance of studying the relationship between environment and development is due to the evidence of the economic indicators that are lacking in the achievement of sustainable development in the countries of the world. The absence of such indicators balances from the environmental data on the natural resource. So it was necessary to take into account both the environment and the development dimension in the formulation of economic development policies in the State.

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has defined the environment as "the set of natural and social resources available at a given time to satisfy humanitarian needs. Or " it is the framework in which man lives with other organisms, including the physical, chemical, biological, social, cultural, economic and political, and get the elements of his life."
 Development, in its general sense, is primarily aimed at satisfying the needs and aspirations of humankind. There are two levels on which development can be considered a goal. The first is the eradication of poverty. The second is to achieve a quality of life that is higher than living in conditions that respond to human rights in life.

 Development is one way to elevate human beings, but what is happening is quite the opposite. Development has become one of the means that has contributed to the depletion, damage and even pollution of the resources of the environment.
 Such development can be described as a development that benefits the economy more than the environment or man. It is "economic development" rather than "environmental development" that benefits from the resources of the environment and harnesses it to serve the economy, which has led to the emergence of many problems.

If life goes naturally without intensive human intervention to exploit its resources in order to increase its productivity, to facilitate the way of life and to increase levels of well-being, the risks associated with these problems have decreased. The environment has been able to absorb the effects of its deterioration and pollution that accompany many economic projects. 

Population with minimal goods and services alongside the steady population increase, this leads to higher levels of waste accumulation (solid, liquid, gaseous) than the environment or biosphere can absorb directly. For examples, the impact of burning fossil fuels into the air with harmful emissions, as well as the misallocation and direct use of resources that lead to environmental degradation by depleting some resources and depleting others, reducing land productivity, increasing desertification at the expense of fertile soil and negatively affecting wildlife as well as the degradation of the general resources of the population on the Earth's surface.

In other words, the relationship between environment and development is strong and not limited to production and consumption, but takes another dimension: redistribution of income, often from the poor to the rich, because the latter are the initiators of development projects that pollute the environment. This does not mean that the poor do not pollute the environment, Slums are always a source of pollution and even a focal point of focus.

In developing countries, poor people do not make good use of the resources available to them, such as the soil they are spoiling by pursuing agricultural policies with unscheduled agricultural cycles, the forests they are going to cut, and the grazing land they patronize in an unfair way.
 The Stockholm Conference, held in 1972, emphasized the need to link the environment with development. The 1992 Rio de Janeiro Conference recommended that land should be considered as a natural resource which achieves development within the framework of environmental objectives and conservation.
The Meaning of Sustainable Development:

 In 1987, the important report of the World Commission on Environment and Development was issued, entitled "Our Common Future". The various chapters focused on the idea of ​​sustainable development and the role of the international community in achieving this development, protecting the environment on the one hand and preserving the future generations on the other. The report defined sustainable development as:
"Development that responds to the needs of the present without sacrificing the possibility of satisfying the needs of future generations in the future".

At present, the essential needs of the population in developing countries have not yet been satisfied. Above all, these people aspire - and this is their right - to improve their quality of life. In a world dominated by poverty and injustice, this means the creation of ecological and non-ecological crises.
 Sustainable development means satisfying the needs of all, as well as satisfying their aspirations for a better and better quality of life.
Opinions differed about the relationship between environment and development:

Preventers: Those who believe that no amount of pollution or degradation of the environment should be sacrificed for development, but that the environment must be preserved as it is and that the responsibility of any generation to deliver it to future generations without change or modification adversely affects them.

Conservatives: emphasize the need to preserve the environment, although it must be used for development must be done in a selective manner, and emerged from this group what is known as the Greens, who merge in their vision between the conservatives and conservatives.

Economists: Those who believe that pollution cannot be prevented completely, since after a certain stage, the costs of removing more pollution will exceed its revenues.

Exploiters: They see the need to continue development processes without reservation because the environment is able to absorb pollution, and to correct the deterioration automatically, and if it fails, modern technology can deal with it and 'modern technology' can use new resources for the new population, Generations that preceded them, so they see no reason to stop development processes, or even reduce them, in order to preserve and protect the environment.

After reviewing the various views on the relationship between environment and development, we tend to the view of conservatives and conservationists to preserve the environment and protect it from pollution because it is our responsibility to deliver it to future generations without change or modification adversely affects them.

The relationship between environment and development is a close one: the environment is the framework in which man lives and receives from him the elements of his life and the satisfaction of his needs. This satisfaction of needs is achieved through the exploitation of environmental resources within the framework of the so-called development process, More comprehensive and inclusive of the meaning of economic growth, which is the result of development efforts.

As a permanent human being seeks to satisfy his needs by raising the rates of economic growth in various economic and social activities, human beings have caused a disturbance of the environmental balance, which has been manifested in environmental pollution, desertification, climate change, loss of biological diversity, etc.
 To meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability and capacity of the environment to meet the needs of the future, it is necessary to integrate environmental considerations into the heart of development-oriented efforts, resulting in a new concept of development and economic growth, Sustainable development ".



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