Monday, July 6, 2020

Fields of Sociology: How Many Branches of Sociology are There?

Sociology is considered a very popular and fast-growing science and is broadly defined as the study of human society.
There are several branches of sociology. Sociology contains many specialists so that we can divide it into various sub-divisions based on its contents.
Branches of sociology
Branches of sociology

How Many Branches Of Sociology Are There?


The Concept of Sociology

Before talking about the fields of sociology, it is necessary to define sociology first; it is the science that examines the characteristics of different human groups and interactions, and the nature of the relationship between the members of these groups.
Sociology is the science that studies the social life of mankind, whether in groups or societies and studies social interactions.
Sociology is also defined as a scientific study of social groups and entities through the interaction of humans in all their activities.

Sociology pays attention to our behavior from the premise that we are social beings, which leads it to arrive at an analysis of the process of short connections between unknown individuals on the street, to the study of global social processes.

Branches of Sociology

Sociology, like other sciences, was affected by many influences, one of which was the phenomenon of specialization that was clearly manifested with the expansion of the industrial revolution and the progress of scientific research, so its interests increased and its fields expand, and each specialized in one aspect of social life.
Sociology is subdivided into many specialized fields, including:

Theoretical sociology: 
Sociological knowledge is composed of complex theoretical frameworks and methodology.
Theoretical perspectives in sociology are the methods of study of previous social theories in a scientific manner.
Social theory is an assumption aimed at looking at objects of social reality, analyzing and interpreting them from a social perspective, and mapping the connections between individual concepts in order to organize and demonstrate social knowledge.

Applied Sociology:
Applied sociology is the practical analogs of academic sociology because it involves applying sociological theory, methods, advanced knowledge and ideas in the field of sociology to solve real-world problems.
Applied sociologists are trained in theory and research methods of discipline, and they base their research on identifying problems in a society, group, or individual that they live in, then they create practical strategies and interventions designed to eliminate or reduce the problem.

Educational sociology:
The sociology of education is the study of the individual experiences, public institutions and social factors that influence the educational structures and processes, both within and between societies.
This branch examines educational methods that lead to an integrated growth of personality because the main pillar in this branch is that education is a process of socialization that is in no way separated from social phenomena.

Cultural sociology:
Cultural sociology is one of the most important branches of sociology that studies culture because it is a characteristic of this science.
Cultural sociology is concerned with the study of culture as a purely human characteristic, with all the attributes, characteristics, and components it carries and with all related concepts such as civilization, the heritage of societies, and various cultural concepts such as change, development, cultural invasion, conflict ... etc.
Sociology of culture is usually understood as a set of symbolic codes used by a society member, as manifested in society.

Rural sociology:
Rural sociology is a branch of sociology associated with the study of social structure and conflict in rural areas.
Rural sociology studies rural society and the relations of the people who live in the villages. It focuses on how rural people and communities are culturally, socially, politically, and economically organized.

Urban sociology:
Urban sociology is the social study of life and human interaction in urban areas.
It is a normative discipline of sociology that seeks to study environmental processes and structures, environmental changes and problems in metropolitan areas.
This branch examines the urban impact on the patterns of behavior and relationships of individuals, examining its origin and methods of its interaction with urban life.

Religious sociology:
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices, morals, ethics and organizational forms of religion using the quantitative methods and qualitative approaches.
This branch examines with introspection and analysis the religious systems and doctrines that are widespread in human societies, regarding the multiplicity and the variation of ages.
The social environment surrounding the individual varies in the way of life and the type of social relationships that constitute it.

Historical sociology: 
Historical sociology is a subfield of sociology that studies and analyzes social events in previous societies and deals with its origins and development.
Historical sociology looks at how social structures are shaped by complex social processes and it focuses on how societies develop through history.

Demographic sociology:
Demography in relation to sociology is the study of population numbers, diversity, and natural distribution in areas where the population is extensively present.
Demographic sociology also studies population divisions, studies the effect of population changes, from a social point of view, and also studies the factors and direction of population change.

Political sociology:
Political sociology is concerned with the sociological analysis of political phenomena, studying the impact of social variables on the formation of political power and investigating topics such as citizenship, social movements, and the sources of social power.

Social Psychology:
Social psychology is a type of science that is concerned with studying the behavior of individuals and groups in societies, knowing the nature of individuals' influence on the social factors surrounding them, and determining the methods that are relied upon to deal with these factors in a correct manner.
Social psychology is also defined as the science concerned with studying the psychological characteristics of individuals who live in groups in order to identify patterns, the methods on which they depend on their interaction, and how this interaction affects their individual personalities.

Medical sociology:
Medical sociology refers to the merging of medical science with sociology, and it is one of the sciences that is used to study, analyze, and understand the social context of matters related to health, disease, and medical care.
Medical sociology is an important science for sociologists, due to the contribution of this science to causing some fundamental effects and changes in societies.
It helps social workers to restructure and formulate some important and fundamental social concepts and principles, the most important of which are the formulation of general social policies, methods of communication, and behavior in societies.

Industrial sociology:
Industrial sociology is the study of the behaviors of people at the workplace and is concerned with the social formation of industrial organizations and the emerging relationships between them and the social system in general.
The sociology of work examines the direction and implications of trends in technological change, labor markets, globalization, managerial practices, work organization, and employment relations.

Military sociology: 
Military sociology is an interdisciplinary subfield of sociology that aims to systematically study the army as a social group rather than as a military organization and it examines issues such as military social organization, race and gender representation in the military, military families, military recruiting,  war and peace, and the military as welfare.
Military sociology uses social concepts, theories, and methods to analyze the internal organization, practices, and perceptions of the armed forces as well as civil-military relations and interactions between other groups or government agencies.

Criminal Sociology:
Criminal Sociology (criminology) is concerned with the causes of crime and the social factors that led to it, as well as the prevalence of crime, its methods, and patterns. It tries to link this to the different cultures of societies and the different living conditions of individuals.
Sociology of crime aims to empirically understand, develop, and test theories explaining criminal behavior, the social structural factors, the formation and enforcement of laws, and the operation of the criminal justice system.

Legal sociology:
Sociology of law (or legal sociology) refers to the sociological study of law and legal systems and their relationship to social structure.
Sociology of law focuses on understanding legal mechanisms and legal practice, as well as establishing the foundation of jurisprudence.

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