There are approximately 60 chemical elements in the human body. About 99% of the mass of the human body is composed of six major elements: oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
|There are approximately 60 chemical elements in the human body.|
How Many Chemical Elements are in the Human Body?
Chemical Elements in the Human Body
The human body contains many chemical elements that are involved in the structure of the body's various tissues and organs such as: bones, teeth, hair, blood, DNA, and others.
Therefore, it is necessary to get acquainted with these chemical elements and their importance and make sure to provide the body with its need for it to be able to perform its vital functions to the fullest extent.
The human body is chemically composed mainly of water and organic substances, such as: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids, in addition to inorganic substances such as: calcium, sodium, phosphorous, and others.
Water is the main component of the human body
Water is the most abundant chemical ingredient in the human body, as it accounts for about 60% of the body weight, and makes up 65-90% of every cell in the body.
Water is involved in the synthesis of fluids that are outside the cells, such as interstitial fluid, blood plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and lymph.
One of the most important advantages of water is that it is a good solvent for many substances.
Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
The human body consists of the following organic substances:
Lipids: Lipid is a macromolecule that contains hydrocarbons and forms the building blocks of the structure and function of living cells. The human body contains a high percentage of sodium, including fats, which provide a buffer of energy, act as an insulating material, and help in the absorption of shocks, phospholipids, and steroids that are used as a key component in the synthesis of cell membranes.
Proteins: Protein is an essential component in the human body. It is included in the composition of cell membranes, muscles, hair and nails. Enzymes that stimulate chemical reactions are formed in the body.
Collagen protein is involved in the composition of the skin, bones, tendons and ligaments.
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates provide the body with energy, which is either found in the form of simple sugars such as glucose circulating in the bloodstream, or they are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen, although carbohydrates do not constitute more than about 1% of the body weight.
Nucleic Acids: The human body contains two types of nucleic acids, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the genetic material responsible for transmitting the genetic characteristics from parents to children. And ribonucleic acid (RNA), which helps to carry out encoded instructions carried by DNA.
Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
The human body contains inorganic components and they are the following chemical elements:
Oxygen: oxygen is the most abundant element in the human body by mass; It is between 61-65% of the mass of the human body, and is necessary for the cellular respiration process.
Carbon: Carbon is the second most abundant element in the human body. It constitutes 18% of the body weight and is the main component of all the organic materials that make up the body.
Hydrogen: Hydrogen makes up 10% of the mass of the human body, and it is an important element because it enters in the composition of the water necessary to soften the organs and joints, regulate the body temperature, to transport food and get rid of waste, and it is also necessary to produce energy and use it in the body.
Nitrogen: The nitrogen component constitutes approximately 3% of the mass of the human body, and is included in the synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.
Calcium: Calcium makes up 1.5% of the human body weight and is the most abundant mineral in the body. It is necessary for building bones and teeth, and for giving the structural system rigidity and strength, and it has a major role in muscle contraction and protein regulation.
Therefore, it is advised to eat meals that contain an adequate amount of calcium, otherwise, calcium will be withdrawn from the bones so that the body can obtain its calcium needs.
Phosphorus: Phosphorous makes up approximately 1.2-1.5% of the human body weight, is found in the bones and teeth, and includes the structure of the primary energy molecule in the body adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Potassium: Potassium is 0.2-0.35% of the adult human body and is an essential electrolyte for all cells of the body and has a role in the transmission of nerve fluid and muscle contraction.
Sulfur: Sulfur is 0.20-0.25% of the human body, an important component of its role in cellular respiration as it enables cells to use oxygen.
Sulfur is an essential component of two types of amino acids that give proteins their specific shape.
It is also an essential component of the keratin protein, which is included in the composition of human hair, skin and nails.
Sodium: Sodium forms from 0.10-0.15% of the mass of the human body and is an essential component in cellular fluids and has a role in regulating fluid volume, blood pressure and body temperature, in addition to its role in the transmission of nerve fluid.
Magnesium: Magnesium accounts for about 0.05% of the human body’s weight. Almost half of it is found in the bones. The body needs it to perform more than 300 chemical reactions from metabolic reactions.
Magnesium has a role in the regulation of the heartbeat, blood pressure, and blood sugar level, and is necessary to support the functions of the immune system, muscles, and nerves, and is used in the manufacture of proteins.
Iron: it accounts for 0.006% of the human body and enters into the formation of hemoglobin; the oxygen-transporting molecule in the blood.
Chlorine: Chlorine is found in the human body in the form of a negative ion. It forms (0.15%) of the human body and is necessary to maintain fluid balance in the body.
Fluorine: (0.0037%) of the human body and is found in bones and teeth, and has a role in fighting tooth decay.
Iodine: Iodine (0.000016%) of the human body is necessary to make thyroid hormone, and its deficiency leads to its enlargement and brain damage.
Zinc: It forms (0.0032%) of the human body and has a role in the regulation of genes, through its presence in many proteins in the form of a structure called zinc fingers, and its deficiency leads to stunting.
Copper: It forms (0.0001%) of the human body and has a role in many biological reactions, which is necessary to enable iron to perform its functions in the body.
Selenium: It forms (0.000019%) of the human body and is necessary for making some enzymes such as antioxidants.
Chromium: It forms (0.0000024%) of the human body and has a role in regulating the level of sugar in the body.
Manganese: It forms (0.000017%) of the human body and is necessary to make some enzymes, especially those that protect mitochondria in the cells of the body.
Molybdenum: It forms (0.000013%) of the human body and has a role in converting sulfur into a form that can be used in the human body.
Cobalt: It forms (0.0000021%) of the human body and is found in Vitamin B12 necessary to regulate DNA and make protein.