Evolution of Wireless Generations from 0G to 5G - Understand the Technology behind Your Cell Phone

The ability to communicate with people on the move has developed significantly. In the last few decades, mobile wireless technology has evolved from 0G to 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G.
1G was an analog used only for voice calls. 2G is a digital technology and supports text messaging. 3G is a high-speed IP data network that offers higher data transmission rates, increased capacity, and multimedia support. 4G refers to the development of mobile broadband that is being deployed for the purpose of quality of service (QoS), efficiency and performance. In 5G technology, many pieces of research are being made on the development of WWWW, DAWN, etc.
Evolution of mobile wireless generations
The evolution of wireless generations from 0G to 5G - Understand the technology behind your cell phone

0G,1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G- The Evolution of Wireless Generations - Understand the Technology behind Your Cell Phone

The Evolution of Mobile Wireless Generations

The recent development of wireless technology has made communication more familiar and accessible to all people. Wireless communication systems transmit waves from a fixed source to cover an area that spreads across a spectrum of waves. These are signals that are divided in the way they work into two types: Analog Signals and Digital Signals.

Analog signals are continuous signals that contain time-varying quantities (such as voltage, pressure, etc.). Analog signals can be used to measure changes in some physical phenomena such as sound, light, humidity, pressure, or temperature.

Digital signals represent data as a series of binary digits. In other words, digital signals represent information in discrete bands of analog levels.

Digital signals are used in all digital electronics, notably data transmission and computing equipment.

Analog signals depend on the properties of the waves in the sound transmission, which can be affected by any other factor. While digital signals depend on the use of waves to transmit data and these signals are generally not affected.

Examples of analog signals are human voice, analog phones, thermometer, etc.
Examples of digital signals are digital phones, digital pens, computers, etc.

Simply, the difference between analog signals and digital signals can be explained by looking at the following points:

Analog signals are difficult to analyze at first, while digital signals are easy to analyze.
Analog signals take time to be stored and have infinite memory while digital signals can be easily stored.
Analog signals produce a lot of noise while digital signals do not produce noise.
Analog signals have a continuous representation of signals while digital signals have a  discontinuous representation of signals.

In our current world, Analog Signals are not used in any type of communication over telephone networks. This time, the total dependence is limited to digital signals transmitted in wave frequency from 300 MHz to 100 GHz.

So far, we have explained how the communication network works in general, let us talk about the generations of mobile wireless technology that we have seen during the last 40 years.

The current demand for mobile communication requires the integration of wireless technologies into existing networks such as wide area networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), etc.

The demand for mobile communication technologies also requires advancement, compatibility, adaptability on mobile services provided by various mobile generations.
In this article, we have discussed the evolution of mobile generation technologies from 0G to 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G.

0G Wireless technology

Zero generation mobile technology (0G) refers to pre-cell phone mobile telephony technology, such as radiotelephone, which some had in cars before the arrival of cell phones.
The modern cellular mobile-telephone technology was produced by the mobile radiotelephonic system as 0G was the predecessor of the first generation of cellular telephones.

1G: Analog Cellular Networks

1G is the 1st generation of wireless cellular technology. Mobile telecommunications were introduced with 1G technology in the 1980s. 1G is analog technology and supports voice-only calls.
1G Analog Cellular Network Features
 1G Characteristic: First wireless communication
 Bandwidth: Analog telecommunication (30KHz)
 Frequency: 150MHz / 900MHz
 Capacity (data rate): 2kbps
 Technology: Analog cellular
The cell phones using 1G technology had:

 Bad voice quality
 Poor battery life
 Big cellphones

2G: Digital Networks

2G is the 2nd-generation of wireless cellular technology. 2G cellular networks took place in Finland in 1991 on the GSM standard.
On March 27, 1991, the world's first GSM phone call was introduced by Radiolinja GSM operator from analog to digital communications.

The 2G wireless cellular network is a digital telecommunication technology that allows call and text encryption, along with data services such as SMS, MMS and picture messages.

2G Mobile Phones Features
 2G Characteristic: Digital telecommunication
 Frequency: 1.8GHz (900MHz)
 Capacity (data rate): 64kbps
 Bandwidth: 900MHz (25MHz)
 Technology: Digital cellular, GSM

2.5G and 2.75G
2.5G network is a new packet-switching technology between the second and third generations.  2.5G is more efficient than 2G technology that led to 2.75G networks. 2.5G capability is usually associated with General Packet Radio Services (GPRS).

2.5G Features
– 2G cellular technology with GPRS
– E-Mails
– Camera phones
– Web browsing

Key Differences Between 1G and 2G
The key difference between 1G and 2G mobile cellular networks is that the radio signals used by 1G technology are analog, while 2G wireless technologies are digital that allow voice and data communication services such as text message services.

3G: High-Speed IP Data Networks

3G refers to an ITU specification for the 3rd generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
3G mobile telecommunication was first introduced in May 2001 as a pre-release of W-CDMA technology. on 1 October 2001, the 3G network was launched commercially by NTT DoCoMo in Japan.

3G technology is the upgrade for 2.5G and 2.5G GPRS networks, and it promises increased bandwidth and faster data transfer speed.
3G networks work over wireless air interfaces such as GSM, CDMA, and TDMA as well as the EDGE air interface.

3G Network Features
 3G Characteristic: Digital broadband, increased speed, fast communication, video calls.
 Frequency: 1.6 – 2.0 GHz
 Bandwidth: 100MHz
 Capacity (data rate): 144kbps – 2Mbps
 Technology: CDMA, UMTS, EDGE

What is the difference between 2G and 3G networks?
The main difference between 2G and 3G networks is that GSM (2G) can provide voice and video communication using GPRS, while 3G provides high-speed internet, high-speed video communication, video conferencing, etc. 

The data transmission rate on a GSM (2G) network is 200-300 Kbps, while the downloading speed can go up to 42Mbps in 3G networks. 
Overall, 3G networks are much better and work faster than the 2G network.

4G: Growth of Mobile Broadband

4G is the 4th generation of broadband mobile communication technology, which was released in 2008.  On December 14, 2009, 4G was launched commercially in the world by TeliaSonera telecom operator.

4G technology supports mobile web access with more advanced features. The 4G network provides capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced.
4G technology also offers video conferencing, HD mobile TV, 3D TV, gaming services and other features that demand high speeds.

Fourth-Generation Long Term Evolution (4G LTE) 
4G LTE refers to the fourth generation long term evolution that provides a more reliable and fastest connection and higher speeds to mobile Internet experience-10 times faster than 3G. It is worth noting that 4G is faster than LTE.

Voice over LTE (VoLTE)
Voice over long-term evolution (VoLTE) is a specification of wireless technology product that defines data transfer speed rates and standards and complete data transfer procedures for delivering voice communication over 4G LTE networks.

4G Network Features
 4G characteristic: High speed, all IP
 Bigger battery usage
 Good QoS + high security
 Bandwidth: 100MHz
 Frequency: 2 – 8 GHz
 Capacity (data rate): 100Mbps – 1Gbps
 Technology: LTE, WiFi

– Global mobile support
 – Mobile multimedia
– Customized personal service
 – Anytime, anywhere
 – Integrated wireless solutions

What is the difference between 3G and 4G technology?

The primary difference between 3G and 4G networks is speed. 4G speed is ten times faster than 3G. 

The 3G network provides 21 Mbps data bandwidth while 4G offers 1 Gbps maximum data bandwidth and brings broadband to your phone. 

3G technology uses a wide-area cell-based network while 4G technology uses a hybrid network architecture.

3G technology uses packet switching for data transmission while 4G technology uses both packet and message switching.

3G networks employ code-division multiple access (CDMA) while 4G networks utilize orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA).

5G Wireless Technology: The Next-Gen Network

5G is the 5th generation wireless communication technology for digital cellular networks. It is expected that 5G networks can be smarter, faster and more efficient than 4G networks.

5G technology may use a variety of spectrum bands and can provide mobile data speeds up to 100 gigabits per second.

5G Technology Features
 High speed and capacity
 Faster data transmission than 4G
 Capacity (data rate): 1Gbps – UNLIMITED

5G network Supports

– Voice streaming
 – Interactive multimedia
– Buckle up... Internet

5G technology is more efficient and advanced.

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The Scientific World is a Scientific and Technical Information Network that provides readers with informative & educational blogs and articles. Site Admin: Mahtab Alam Quddusi - Blogger, writer and digital publisher.

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