Friday, April 26, 2019

Clinical Psychology History, Approaches, and Careers - Clinical Psychologist Job Description

Clinical psychology
Clinical psychology is one of the branches of applied psychology, which combines the psychological theories and scientific discoveries, in order to understand the nature of the human body and the symptoms of mental disorders that affect humans and try to alleviate the symptoms and overcome psychological disorders.

Clinical Psychology History, Approaches, and Careers - Clinical Psychologist Job Description


What is Clinical Psychology?

People differ in their understanding and diversity of interests and behaviors. They have their influence on different topics of psychology. There may be diversity between physical inefficiencies and mental illnesses, and between social psychology and clinical psychology, and within educational, military and industrial psychologies. All this is mixed up with the study of personality traits of intelligence, creativity, and genius.
For a long time, we have seen the attraction of individuals to the subjects of psychology because they relate to the individual's understanding of himself and his social environment. The more complex the society, the more we need to understand ourselves correctly in a broader and deeper form.
As needed by individuals in their family relations, and social workers as well as parents in many sectors of society, such as schools, and hospitals as well as mental health institutions. For the interpretation of diversity and personality traits, the concept of clinical psychology emerged in the world.
Clinical psychology is defined as a science that integrates theories, scientific method, and clinical knowledge. Clinical psychology is the backbone of the mental sciences, and the medical professions concerned with mental health, which are governed by a number of international rules, laws, and standards. It aims to understand the nervous stresses of man, anxiety, amnesia, Alzheimer's, depression, etc., as a result of the increased difficulty of life.

A Brief History of Clinical Psychology

Clinical psychology refers to an evolutionary stage of rapid psychological development. Although modern psychology emerged in the late nineteenth century in the continent of Europe, psychotherapy had occupied a place in different cultures. Despite the use of psychiatric and mental health clinics and hospitals for methods considered primitive compared to the contemporary period, but the academic community was rejecting these methods until Freud introduced a new method of psychotherapy.
Speech therapy was the first practical application of clinical psychology in the world. The method of brain science was used at the beginning of the 18th century. This science enables the doctor to examine the head through the shape of his external skull.
The first institute specializing in the treatment of mental illness was established in 1879 by the German scientist Wilhelm Griesinger. The work of the institute focused on psychological research, the pursuit of treatment methods and follow-up of existing cases.
In the United States of America, the first psychotherapy clinic was opened at the University of Pennsylvania that was established in 1896, specializing in the treatment of speech and learning difficulties in children. 

The term "clinical psychology" was first used systematically by Witmer-1896 to refer to assessment and diagnostic procedures for mentally retarded and physically disabled children. This is the first attempt to define the concept of clinical psychology.
Ten years later, the term "clinical psychology" was introduced and defined as a science that deals with studying individuals by observing and experimenting to make a positive change in their lives.

In 1935, the American Psychological Association (APA) defined clinical psychology as an applied branch of psychology that aims to determine the characteristics of an individual's behavior and abilities by using methods of measurement, analysis, and observation. It also provides tests and recommendations for the purpose of the consensus of the individual after the medical examination, through the use of scientific methods to help people suffering from psychological disorders.
In 1975, the American Psychological Association established the basic rules for the training of specialists in the community psychotherapy.

What can clinical psychologists specialize in?

 Clinical psychologists work in many fields related to research and psychological counseling of various industrial, military and political bodies and institutions, as well as solving family problems and organizing various treatment groups for mental and neurological disorders, in order to obtain a license to practice clinical psychology in a specialized clinic, and obtain a bachelor's degree in one of the branches of general psychology in addition to a higher education specializing in the practice of clinical psychology. The duration of practical training differs from one country to another in the program of Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Psychology. The period usually ranges from three to four years, and the specialist must pass a written test to obtain a license to practice the profession.
Many doctors tried to deal with mental disorders by combining religious and medical views. Others tried to deal with it through magic, sorcery, and legends based on superstitions that do not contain or treat anything.
The clinical psychiatrist's job differs from other psychologists or analysts according to the laws, since the clinical psychiatrist is entitled to prescribe medication, while a general psychologist or analyst is forbidden to do so.


Where do clinical psychologists work?

Clinical psychologists are specialized clinicians and licensed professionals who are qualified and specialized in clinical psychology to provide direct services to patients. Psychologists are experts in or psychological measurement or psychometrics and formal tests. 
Psychologists specializing in clinical psychology have a great deal of experience in more than one medical fields as well as clinical psychology. They are often interested in in-depth scientific research, teaching at universities, counseling in their private clinics or public hospitals. Clinical psychologists work in a number of settings, including outpatient centers, hospitals, government agencies, private practice offices, and military medical servicesPolice also use clinical psychology in investigative and brainwashing requirements, forensic and criminal certificates.


Clinical Psychology Services 

Clinical psychology services may include interpreting and administering personality and cognitive tests, diagnosing mental disorders, conducting psychotherapy and creating treatment plans. They are defined as:
1. Clinical psychology is concerned with the development and interpretation of psychological assessments and tests.
2. Commitment to psychological research.
3. Clinical psychologists specialize in providing psychological counseling to institutions such as schools and universities.
4. The clinical psychiatric care departments are committed to the development of prevention and psychotherapy programs.
5. Coordination, organization, and management of psychotherapy sessions.
6. Diversification and combining the provision of psychological treatment.
7. Clinical psychologists often work as academicians in university teaching.

What methods do clinical psychologists use in an assessment?

1 - IQ tests: These tests also interested in measuring the proportion of educational achievement in addition to tests that measure the intelligence of the person, and these evaluation tests to measure some of the skills of the child and the proportion of general knowledge and verbal skills and memory and degree of attention and logical thinking and perception of spatial and visual.

2 - Personality tests: The main objective of these tests is to reveal the psychological state of the person and the processes that pass through in addition to describing the patterns of behavior and ideas and feelings of the individual. These tests often rely on comparisons or on the mysterious stimuli that raise the soul to come out of the ideas and theses.

3. Neuropsychological tests: This assessment is further examined the neurological condition and if it suffers from problems affecting the health and ability to deal with reality properly, whether this has a psychological impact on the situation or not?

4. Clinical observation: Clinical observation is carried out in this field by observing the behavior of the individual, observing his general behavior, mood, and his ability to perceive and deal properly with the reality around him.

The concept of clinical psychology includes the following aspects:
Medicine and Neurology:
A clinical psychologist is a physician and neurologist who is entrusted with the task of diagnosis and treatment. No one should consider himself a clinical psychologist unless he has a medical background.

Measurement:
Clinical psychology is concerned with identifying the abnormal conditions of some people, which are the psychological, mental and personal tests and measurements that are the basic tools in the diagnosis. Without them, the diagnosis will be unsuccessful and its success will not be expected to achieve the desired goal.

Anomalous:
The work of a clinical psychologist is determined by the study of homosexuals and individuals who are less intelligent than ordinary people.

Behavior:
Clinical psychology studies the behavior of the individual and includes diagnosing the psychological state of the individual or his mind through observation and experimentation to achieve an appropriate degree of adaptation to events, attitudes.

Compatibility:
Clinical science links the patient to reality and addresses the problems of psychological compatibility of the individual and his compatibility with his environment in order to achieve his demands.

Topics taught by clinical psychology:
Problems of children and adolescents
Family problems and family relations counseling
Neuropsychiatric disorders
Treatment of disorders such as (trauma - addiction - eating disorders - sleep - sex - depression - anxiety - phobia)
Clinical psychology is also used in companies, schools, institutions, sports, and forensic backgrounds.

Conclusion
Clinical psychology is now taught at the Educational Psychological Counseling Colleges, and many students graduate each year after undergoing intensive postgraduate training to be able to treat patients.

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