Thursday, January 31, 2019

Quantum computing, Qubits and Quantum computers - Definition and Applications

Quantum computing is the direct use of specific quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to store data, perform calculations and power exciting advances in various fields, from materials science to pharmaceuticals research.
A quantum computer is a machine that works with particles that can be in a superposition and performs such calculations that can be applied theoretically or physically.
Quantum computing
Quantum computing, Qubits and Quantum computers

Quantum Computing, Qubits and Quantum Computers -Definition and Applications

Experts believe that the next revolution in the field of information science will be run by quantum computing because most powerful traditional computers cannot handle the information and fulfill those tasks. What is quantum computing, what are its applications, and what are the most important constraints in its development?



What is Quantum Computing?

Quantum computing is the use of specific quantum mechanical phenomena to store data, perform calculations and power exciting advances in various fields.

Quantum computing is simply a new way of designing microprocessors based on the laws of quantum physics. 

To understand the leap that will be made in the development of quantum computers, one must look at how the traditional computer works.

This system is based on a binary system with one of the values of either zero or one. Each value is known as a bit. 
This system adopts the same logical rule as the state of a light bulb, for example, it either shines (one) or does not light ). 

There is no third case that can have a lamp. Using dual logic, the ordinary computer stores, and processes information, and as more and more information storage and processing capacities are needed, traditional computers - including giants - have shown their limited potential when it comes to complex issues that require massive and complex information processing.

What are Qubits?

A qubit or quantum bit is the basic unit of information in quantum computing.
A qubit has something – a particle or an electron – that adopts two possible states. 

The difference between a bit and a qubit is that a regular bit can have states 0 ("off") or 1 ("on") and qubit has an extra state (quantum superposition). This property differentiates qubit from a regular bit.

Most silicon-based qubits are made of an electron or the nucleus of a single phosphorous atom.

What is a Quantum Computer?

A quantum computer is a type of computer that uses the properties of quantum physics to store data and perform calculations more efficiently than conventional computers.

A quantum computer is a machine that works with particles that can be in a superposition and performs such calculations that can be applied theoretically or physically.

A quantum computer differs from other computers such as transistor computers and DNA computers.

A quantum computer uses qubits, which are usually subatomic particles such as photons or electrons.

Quantum computers promise exciting developments in various fields, from pharmaceutical research to materials science.



Quantum Overlay

Since the 1980s, computers have been developed using a different logic that is not subject to the laws of classical physics but to the laws of quantum physics that apply to nanoparticles.

According to these laws, the information storage box can take three values (zero) or (one) or both at the same time, that is called qubit or qbit, if the lamp was small and the laws of quantum physics apply, luminous or non-luminous or in both cases at the same time.

This third case is called quantum overlay, one of the characteristics of quantum physics that Schrodinger represented in the cat experiment, in which he proved that the "quantum cat" can be both alive and dead at the same time.

It is this strange behavior of matter when it is a nanoparticle that will give quantum computing in the future its supernatural ability to perform calculations and processing huge information compared to traditional computers. 
For example, quantum computers will be able to decode any encryption system currently used to protect the information in moments, while the most powerful supercomputers today may take years to decode. 

How will Quantum Computers be Used in the Future? 

Quantum computing system
What are the uses of quantum computing?

Applications of Quantum Computers

Quantum computing applications - for example, will lead to solutions to complex equations that enable the manufacture of superconductivity at normal temperatures, which will allow the development of new technologies such as high-speed magnetic trains and the transmission of electricity for long distances without waste.

Quantum computing will also enable the design of intelligent networks for the exchange of high-efficiency information using one of the properties of quantum physics, quantitative interconnectivity. 

This strange feature is to "connect" two bodies quantitatively so that one can recognize the state of one by observing the other even if it is at a distance, which means that the information will not be transferred, which expose them to the possibility of piracy, but it will be simultaneously exchanged for this technique, also known as remote data transfer.

In general, quantum computing will be an effective tool for achieving important scientific and technological leaps by opening up vast possibilities for manipulating large data, understanding natural phenomena and accomplishing complex tasks by making calculations that are extremely complex or impossible in time recording compared to today's most powerful supercomputers. 

Quantum computing will be the main tool in the future to simulate natural phenomena, anticipate weather and air disturbances with high accuracy and understand chemical and molecular reactions, enabling the development of new and effective medicines, DNA analysis and early detection of cancer.



 What are the Challenges of Quantum Computing?

Quantum computers are extremely difficult to construct, engineer and program. Consequently, a quantum computer is crippled by errors in the form of faults, noise, and loss of quantum coherence.

The way of quantum computing is not without the difficulties that have delayed and will delay the day when we will see the quantum computer in the markets. These barriers are mainly technical obstacles. 
First, providing a stable and suitable environment for the computer is approaching the absolute temperature of about 273 degrees Celsius.

The second major obstacle is to maintain the quantitative stability of the computer. The more it's capacity, the lower its stability. 
Therefore, part of its processing capacity will be directed first to monitor the stability of the computer. All these obstacles make many specialists in this field and do not expect access to the manufacture of quantitative computer and display in the market.

On the other hand, others believe that it may not take a few years before we see these computers on the market. 

In either case, there is great concern about the use of quantum computing to violate the privacy of users of traditional information networks, especially in the transition period when using traditional and quantitative technologies at the same time, which may last long, the current safety procedures - including encryption techniques - would be of no use to a quantum computer.

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