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Sunday, October 28, 2018

Why Artificial Intelligence may Pose a Threat to Human Race?

Artificial Intelligence
Why Artificial Intelligence may Pose a Threat to Human Race?


Why Artificial Intelligence may Pose a Threat to Human Race?



In the modern era, the industry has reached a stage of development in which we use machines based on artificial intelligence. We no longer need human labor. How will this affect human functions?
Artificial intelligence is one of the most important inventions of modern times in technology. Although not fully developed yet, it is able to enter all areas of daily life. Beginning with automated programs that perform tasks automatically.  Robots or machines that work with artificial intelligence have the ability to perform difficult and complex tasks automatically and responsibly.


Reasons that make artificial intelligence a threat to human labor

Nowadays, there is a growing fear that human beings can be replaced with machines: reducing human labor and thereby reducing human functions. Which will raise the global unemployment rates, and this idea caused great panic in the institutions concerned. So will industrial intelligence really create a threat to those jobs that humans have known and done?

Human labor is the most expensive

When an industrial company compares anywhere between the prices of human labor and the cost of buying artificially intelligent equipment and machinery, wage rates are always higher. Of course, companies will turn to machinery and abandon staff to reduce product prices and increase profit rates. This is the first and most important point of preference in artificial intelligence because it never demands a raise in wages. Unlike people who are constantly demanding higher wages because of the high cost of living.
Artificial intelligence does not require a lot of money to work, but just needs energy to work and is produced continuously without tiring or grumbling or long breaks. Unlike humans who demand rest periods that reduce production hours, food periods, and summer vacations. All this increases the price of the product and reduces the profit. The money that the company will pay will go to the price of machines or robots, and then the price of maintenance of each spaced intervals. These funds are not comparable to the monthly salaries of employees.

Artificial intelligence has the highest efficiency

When it comes to lifting or moving heavy equipment, or dealing with high temperatures in large furnaces, of course, machines and robots will be the most efficient because they are more able to withstand the conditions of hard work. Unlike the human factor whose life is repeatedly threatened in difficult and dangerous working conditions.  Machines also have a higher regulatory capacity, allowing them to work together dynamically without mistakes. So when a company wants to provide employment for difficult routine tasks, it will think about machines before humans. And will try to reduce the number of human posts whenever possible.


Rapid disposal of robots is easy and simple

With the rise of global awareness about health and the provision of a decent life for all workers, and a large number of trade unions specialized in the defense of workers' rights. Companies have to spend huge sums on health care for employees, and then pay pensions to the elderly. These things can be completely eliminated when using robots based on artificial intelligence. Of course, each machine has a certain period of validity and thus is unable to complete its work efficiently. But it will not ask for pensions from the company, but simply will be disposed of. These funds provided by artificial intelligence are the primary danger to human functions. Because it provides an opportunity for companies to get rid of human labor, and provides a better product at a lower price and a shorter period, and will not claim any rights.

The two sentences are not equal

Klaus Schwab, founder, and CEO of the World Economic Forum explains that artificial intelligence creates new jobs and eliminates old jobs. But these two extremes in creating the new and eliminating the old are unequal. The functions that will be eliminated by artificial intelligence at the beginning are much more than the functions that will provide them. We are talking about millions of human jobs around the world, in industry and agriculture. And all other areas that are still dependent on every small and large human labor will suddenly turn to rely on machines.

Staff retraining

Klaus Schwab explains that the magnitude of the problem will increase because of the inability to retrain staff for new jobs. It is very difficult, retraining a forty-year-old employee to use modern machines and supervise them, which will create a gap between the number of employees expelled from their jobs and the number of workers required to work but with high skills. Unfortunately, many countries are unaware of the importance of vocational training for individuals. The result will be a great need for highly skilled workers and large numbers of unqualified employees.

Artificial intelligence is an alternative to repetitive tasks

New studies illustrate an important point on the impact of industrial intelligence in the labor market. These are studies from McKinsey and others from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Showing that artificial intelligence and robots would be a substitute for difficult and tedious routines, but would not affect more complex human functions. Machines cannot perform all the complex processes that require a human brain and human interaction.
This point is consistent with the previous point. Machinery provides the right climate for the human mind to increase the efficiency of its work and focus only on complex creative processes. They do routine work and organize schedules instead. If human jobs that need training and high skill will not be affected like routine human functions. When an individual becomes capable of being creative with machinery, mastering it and controlling it, he will not be subject to expulsion from his job. But will increase its flexibility and importance. Here, the difference between a self-employed person and a technologist of the age and the future, and between the person who relies on his current job without the effort to learn new skills and new tools.

The big gap between wages

When robots with artificial intelligence replace humans, a large wage gap will occur between high-skill workers and weak skills. The middle-class will almost disappear, the most influential being the introduction of artificial intelligence into the industrial field. We will give an example of being closer to understanding. A company generally relies on three categories of employees. Management staff, i.e. higher skills that require high human thought processes. Office personnel and human manual workers on machinery, i.e. intermediate skills. They are called in the economic community as "automatic employment “then cleaners i.e. few skilled workers.
The most affected group is the middle class. This category is difficult to train on higher skills as we explained before. This category will have to work in the low-skill labor market, which will increase this category and reduce the wages offered to them. By contrast, the higher the skill category will increase the wages offered because they are the least in society. 

The effect of artificial intelligence has a regional effect

Recent studies in this field have offered some comfort to the hearts of those who fear the impact of artificial intelligence on human functions, proving that the effect of artificial intelligence is regional only. Daron Acemoglu and Pascual Restrepo investigated the effect of robots on human functions in the United States. They found that the states that depend on the industry are the most affected with a loss of 6.2 jobs per 1 new robot. In states that depend on agriculture or coastal states, the rate will be lower. Only 3 jobs will be lost to each new robot.
Because coastal areas, for example, demand greater human labor, and population numbers are lower in most areas because they are considered remote, which could create new jobs for those who lost their jobs. Industrial areas are overcrowded, which will increase the size of the problem and the loss of employment opportunities. This regional influence can be overcome by distributing the population map and reducing overcrowding in industrial and commercial cities. This depends on the extent to which States understand the magnitude of the problem and work to address it. This is a problem because countries are not aware of this danger.

Women are the most affected by artificial intelligence

New studies for 2017 at the Institute of Economic Analysis show that women will be affected by artificial intelligence and occupation. Women will be affected by the vulnerability of men. This is because most women work in intermediate skill areas. For example, 97% of employees as receptionists or cashiers in shops are expected to lose their jobs in the coming years. 73% of these workers are women, according to 2016 statistics.

Dark-skinned men will lose their jobs first

The same study shows that men with black skin will lose their jobs first before men with white skin, because of the nature of the work in the most African men around the world and the monopoly of the white-market labor. Asian men are second affected in comparison to African men.

Degree determines the magnitude of the effect

In several studies of different groups around the world, the magnitude of the effect has been directly linked to the individual's scientific level. Those who do not have a university degree will be affected six times as much as those who have a higher degree of practicality. Any individual who has not completed secondary or university education will lose his job six times faster. The deterioration of education in the country increases the risk of job loss due to artificial intelligence.

Lack of ethics and disregard of global organizations

Another reason increases the risk posed by artificial intelligence to jobs, namely, the lack of ethics among the makers of these machines. Professor Carnegie Mellon says that workers in the field of developing artificial intelligence must think ethically. They make these machines for human comfort and happiness, not for sabotaging life and eliminating jobs that provide for a living. But reality says the opposite because technology makers are concerned only with material gain and are working on developing the efficiency of machines in all fields until humans are replaced.
Mr. Mellon concludes by saying that international organizations must gradually sponsor and regulate how robots enter life domains. So that people do not lose their dignity in front of the machine. This total disregard of the problem and its impact on human life, the lack of effective debate at the national and international levels, and the loss of ethics in modern technology increase the risk.
We are in the process of a fourth industrial revolution with artificial intelligence, after the revolution of steam, electricity and the digital revolution. Our ancestors suffered from the industrial revolutions that preceded us. But the outcome is always positive and in favor of people. Artificial intelligence will provide a decent life and new jobs for people in the long term. But today we must be responsible and cautious in taking these new steps. We are working to address the magnitude of the anticipated threat, to provide jobs for all, not only for the few lucky ones.


By: Mahtab Alam Quddusi


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