The Gal4 gene is a transcription factor. Transcription factors encode a protein that triggers genes. The Gal4 protein identifies a so-called upstream activator sequence (UAS), which can involve the expression of a gene of interest.
The fruit fly Drosophila is powerful for the study of development and disease and has many tools to genetically modify its cells.
|Female reproductive genetics|
Biochemical Tool for Female Reproductive Genetics
Female Reproductive System
Female reproductive system consists of internal and external organs that work in the reproduction of new offspring. In humans, the female reproductive system is immature at birth and develops into adulthood at puberty so that it can produce the gametes and carry the embryo to the full range.
Study Report on Female Reproductive genetics
The new research on reproductive genetics was published in May 2018. In the article, it was reported that Allan Spradling and Steven Deluca have discovered a new biochemical method to study gene conversion and gene function. They have invented a new tool named “The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster”.
It is a powerful biological organism to study the evolution of animal, and human growth and disease. It's low-cost and quickly generated. They have claimed that it can work in both gene expression and gene function.
There are many tools to genetically modify their cells. One device is called the Gal4/UAS two component activation system. The Gal4 gene is a transcription factor. Transcription factors encode the proteins that trigger the genes. Gal4 protein recognizes a so-called upstream activating sequence (UAS), which can inspire the expression of the genes of interest.
A special edition of UAS was made in the embryology department in 1998, which was called UASP to work during egg-cell development. But the fact is that for non-reproduction cells and egg-making cells, different tools are needed.
Although it has been the mainstay of Drosophila genetics for twenty-five years, it works effectively not only in egg reproductive cells but in non-reproduction cells.
Another vector is the original pUASt vector-a molecule that frees foreign genetic material in any other cell-it is a promoter named Hsp70. As the name suggests, promoters are bits of DNA that start or promote genes transcription properly.
There are many varieties to improve their expression. Hsp70 is a member of the family of proteins with similar structures in almost all living organisms and is important for protecting cells from protein folding and stress. The mechanisms of protein folding are important for life and to understand the diseases.
However, the variations of the UAS have not corrected the major problem of poor genetic activity in the female egg production system compared to non-reproduction tissues.
To achieve the widely effective Gal4 vector, there is a lack of understanding of the main stumbling block as to why the UAST works poorly in egg-producing cells and causes a lack of research compared to the UASp and UASt promoters.
Allan Spradling and Steven DeLuca studied the differences between the UASt and UASp. They also saw the reason for the extremely weak UASt expression in the female reproductive system.
Evidence shows that non-coding RNA molecules (which are called piRNA) have made orchestration cooling to limit UASt expression.
Then they found that these UASt-piRNAs tests were done to check whether Hsp70 was responsible for silencing piRNAs. Their results strongly indicated that UASt is normally silenced by HSP 70 piRNA and that UASt is better than UASp. There are deficiency cells in UASp70 piRNA.
Mr. DeLuca commented that "We have assessed that HSP 70 can detect UASt RNA to initiate piRNAsilencing.
To prevent HSP70 piRNA from recognizing UAST RNA, we used to treat nucleotide-DNA and RNA of UASt vector to reduce the original units of the same piRNA, we went from 213 nucleotides to 19 nucleotides.
A missed version named 'UASz', because we had hoped that it would be the last whoever would do it, we tried to create a new version of the next UAS expression vector which worked well both in non-reproduction cells and egg production systems "
And Mr. Spradling commented that "the UASZ egg production system was expressed four times more than the UASP at all stages, but it is a clear upgrade for all applications on UASp and better expression vectors in all tissues, and this UASt. It is equal to many, but not all, reproductive tissue. This is a major obstacle for fertility studies. "
Their research agreed with previous reports that the UASt has done better than UASp in all non-reproductive tissues, while the UASp has done better work in the female egg production system. And they hoped that it would provide a proper guide for other events.
Story Source: New tool for female reproductive genetics