Sunday, November 4, 2018

DNA could be used to store digital data more efficiently than computers


DNA could be used to store digital data more efficiently than computers

DNA: The future of digital storage

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a roadmap that contains all the details about every living being. If you see DNA with the right tools and have a basic understanding of the genome of your goal, then you can tell everything from where the sample came from to the genus and species of your target organism. You can find DNA strands that determine body type, hair color, and even sensitivity or susceptibility to some diseases or conditions.

What is DNA data storage?

DNA data storage is defined as synthesized wires of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and then encoding and decoding binary data processing. In nature, DNA molecules have genetic blueprints for living cells and organisms. DNA data storage is a great deal. Partially, that's because we are based on DNA, and any research in the manipulation of that molecule will normally pay a dividend for medicine and biology - but to a lesser extent, this is also because the world's richest And powerful corporations are getting discouraged and frustrated over cost estimates in future data storage. Although DNA data storage has recently become a hot topic, this is not the idea of the modern day. In fact, its origins date back to 1964-65, 65 when Mikhail Neiman, a Soviet physicist, published his works in the journal Radiotehnika.

Mr. Mikhail Neiman wrote about general ideas of the possibility of recording, storing and retrieving information on DNA molecules. This time, Facebook, Apple, Google, the US government, and much more are stunning investments in storage. But even these mega-projects can be indispensable for so long; they are creating a lot of data to maintain magnetic storage, without a major unexpected change in technology. This is the reason why a company like Microsoft recently decided to invest in the prospect of information storage with a complete technique: Biotech. This software may seem off-brand for giant, but with the help of academics to take on nuclear biology, surprising results have emerged: Team was able to store and remember digital data with incredible storage density.
To store a binary digital file as DNA, different bits (binary digits) 1, 0 are converted into letters A, C, G, and T. These letters represent the four main compounds in DNA: A for adenine, C for cytosine, G for guanine, and T for thymine. The physical storage medium is a synthetic DNA molecule, in which the compounds of these four compounds are included in the sequence of bits in the digital file sequence. To recover data, the sequence representing the DNA molecule is decoded back into the original sequence of A, C, G, and T bits to1 and 0.

How DNA could store all of the world’s data in one room?

How DNA data storage works?

DNA storage requires cutting-edge technologies in data compression and security so that a sequence can be designed and the potential of DNA and redundant of DNA can be realized in order to improve the accuracy of the recovered information in the line. Very few technologies on display here are new because the most important parts of the system are in existence for a long time from mankind.
After determining the order in which the letter should go, the DNA sequences are the letters produced by the letter with chemical reactions. These reactions are operated by the pieces of equipment which take the A, C, G, and T bottles and mix them in liquid solution with other chemicals to control the reactions that specify the sequence of physical DNA strings. This process brings another advantage of DNA storage: backup copies. Instead of creating a strand at a time, chemical reactions create many similar strands at the same time to make several copies of the next strand in the series. Once the DNA strand is formed, we need to protect them from damage to humidity and light. So we dry them and put them in a container, which keeps them cool and blocks water and light. But archived data is useful only when we can retrieve them later.
However, collecting and storing information in DNA is different from computer RAM in some important ways. The most notable thing is speed; RAM makes it part of it that its easy accessibility system is also an instant access system, so that the computer may require and hold the data on immediate notice, and it can be made available from time to time. On the other hand, DNA is quite hard and slow compared to conventional computer transistors, which means that in terms of speed of access it really is like a low RAM compared to your spinning magnetic hard-drive or average computer SSD.

Advantages and disadvantages of DNA data storage

DNA data storage
Advantages and disadvantages of DNA data storage


 A clear advantage of DNA storage, it should ever be pragmatic and practical for everyday use, it will have the ability to keep large amounts of data in the media, with small physical volume. Currently, all digital information present in the world can live in four grams of synthetic DNA. A less obvious, but perhaps more important, the advantage of DNA storage is its longevity. Since DNA molecules can survive for thousands of years, the encoded digital collections in this generation can be recovered by people for many generations to come. It can solve the possibility of our digital age lost in history due to longevity, relative impermanence or voltage of optical, electronic and magnetic media. 


 Today, the main disadvantages of DNA storage for practical use are its high cost and slow encoding speed. The speed problem limits the promise of technology for storage purposes in the near term, though at the end, the speed can be improved at that point where DNA storage can work effectively for normal backup applications and, perhaps, primary storage. For the cost, the expenditure can come to a point where technology becomes commercially viable at a large scale.

Why is DNA data storage so important?

DNA data storage is extremely important for two main reasons:

Firstly, conventional data collection methods may not be able to maintain the current volume of data generated. At present, conventional storage methods, such as solid state and optical drives, will be anywhere between three months and three years, depending on the quality of the device and the level of usage. Solid-state drives, due to lack of moving parts, are often much longer than optical drives. To make sure that your data is stored safely for a few years, there are some conditions that can be followed before transferring your data to a new drive.

Second, a strand of DNA can last up to millions of years, so that the stored data is longer than any other type of data storage. Based on current data rates of data generation, humanity can potentially generate 16 trillion gigabytes of data within the next year, with which this number is increasing rapidly in the next few years. It has 2.5 quintillion bytes of data that are produced every day.
On the other hand, DNA can be made up to one million years under optimal conditions. Scientists have found practical specimens of DNA in the snowy landscape like Greenland, which reaches 800,000 years ago. They are trying to accomplish this, and big successes in the field of DNA data storage are underway.

How DNA can be used to store computer data?

DNA is the oldest information-storage system that has known for years. It predicts one another for billions of years, from pencils and paper to computer hard drives. But trying to employ it to store the data generated by people, has failed, unlike the data needed to bring those people in the first place. Due to cost is not so technical difficulty. A gigabyte encoding in the DNA will run a bill of several million dollars. It is still on the pricey side. But in reality, a second ratio also comes in the game for large storage requirements: Gigabytes stored in cubic meters per cubic meter. The catalog's method can store 600bn gigabytes in the same quantity.

While designing a DNA-based storage system, the apparent temptation is to look at the chemical base pair of one and zero and deoxyribose nucleic acids of binary data as equivalent and to translate one into another in relation to each file related to a single, large DNA molecule to be stored.
Unfortunately, it produces molecules that are difficult to index machines when the time comes to see what data is the data of DNA encoding. Specifically, computer data contains locations that have long strings of either ones or zeros. DNA sequencers have difficulty when facing unitary strings like base pairs.

The catalog has taken a different step. The firm's system is based on 100 different DNA molecules; each ten base pairs are long. However, the order of these bases does not encode the binary data directly. Instead, the company ties these small DNA molecules together for long periods of time. Importantly, the enzyme system that uses it to do is able to collect small molecules in whatever is desired, into long ones. Starting with 100 types of small molecules is enough; it means that trillions of combinations can be possible for a long time. It can contain large amounts of information in long molecules.
Catalog approach also means that it is difficult to read data incorrectly. Even if the sequential machine gets the base or two wrong, it is generally possible to estimate the identification of the ten-base pair unit in question, thus preserving the data. The connective approach of the catalog means that per-byte per DNA is required compared to the requirement of other DNA-based methods. It enhances both time and reading costs to recover data stored in electronic form for processing. Overall, however, the method promises to have significant benefits on its predecessors. The next task is to translate that word into reality. In the end, a catalog is working with a British technology-development firm; Cambridge Consultants, to create prototypes capable of writing 125 gigabytes of data per day to DNA.

The genetic molecule is too small to store data so it will solve the encoding data tape real estate problem. We need around 10 tons of DNA to store all data of the world. There is something that you can fit on a semi-trailer. Synthetic biologists and computing architects are now designing the system to automate DNA storage processes.

By: Mahtab Alam Quddusi

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